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Tag: EMI testing

On March 18, 2018, Elaine Herzberg pushed her bike across Mill Avenue in Tempe, Arizona。 At ten o'clock at night, it would have been difficult for a driver to see someone cross the street, especially outside of a crosswalk。 It wasn’t a driver, however, who hit the young woman。 It was an autonomous vehicle。

斗地主达人Uber began testing its autonomous vehicles in Arizona back in 2016。 After Herzberg’s death—the very first pedestrian death caused by an autonomous vehicle—Uber suspended its testing in the state。 While proponents of the autonomous vehicle argue that these cars are much safer than conventional cars, which are subject to human error, critics point out that AI is flawed as well。 And because computers cannot “think on their feet” unless specifically programmed to analyze and account for millions of possible scenarios, they are often less safe。

Published in MultiPoint Blog

If there's one thing that PCB and EMC design have in common, it's that these designs are often left until the very end of the product design cycle。 As with EMC design, waiting until the last moment to consider PCB design can be costly, time-consuming, and stressful, especially when dealing with high-speed PCB design。 

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Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a disturbance that causes the malfunction of electronic equipment。 While some EMI does not pose a significant threat—such as static noise on the radio—EMI that affects critical infrastructure, military assets, and medical equipment can pose economic and, sometimes, life-threatening risks。

For instance, in 1989, EMI triggered by a geomagnetic storm disturbed the Hydro-Quebec power system. Within 92 seconds, the entire system collapsed, leaving six million people without power. This type of disaster can be extremely dangerous, as witnessed on July 13th, 2019 when New York City suffered a blackout, leaving 73,000 people without power in this summer’s intense heat. While there were no injuries or deaths reported, many were left without air conditioning, others stuck in elevators and traffic jams.

To prevent disasters like this, it is imperative to mitigate the susceptibility of electronic equipment to EMI。 In order to accomplish such a task, engineers should be aware of the three types of EMI sources: inherent, natural, and man-made sources。

Inherent EMI

斗地主达人Inherent sources of EMI are those caused by the thermal agitation of electrons flowing through circuit resistance。 Thus, with this type of EMI, a device disrupts its own functioning。 Radio static is on example of inherent EMI。

Natural EMI

斗地主达人Natural sources of EMI are those caused by natural events, such as lightning, solar magnetic storms, rain particles, and solar radiation. These sources of EMI do not pose a serious threat to electrical or electronic equipment, but they can affect older radio frequency communication equipment. According to NOAA, however, solar geomagnetic storms, like the one described above, can cause such issues as:

  • Placing extra drag on satellites in low-earth orbit
  • Modifying the path of radio signals
  • Creating errors in positioning information provided by GPS
  • Disrupting GNSS and
  • Producing geomagnetic induced currents (GICs) in power grids and pipelines.

斗地主达人Man-Made EMI

Man-made sources of EMI are those produced by electrical or electronic equipment, such as powerlines, welders, generators, and computer circuits. Often, man-made EMI occurs when two signals are within close proximity to each other, and when not properly shielded, cause malfunction or disruption.

A sub-category of man-made EMI is intentional EMI (IEMI), which is often referred to as electronic warfare。 Military assets and critical infrastructure are primary targets for such attacks and can face such threats as high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse, E-bombs, EMP cannons, and high-power microwave weapons。

Thus, it is imperative that such assets are properly shielded from EMI using conductive materials, which block electromagnetic emissions and reflect/absorb them. EMI shielding can be accomplished with EMI shielding gaskets and conductive silicones.

EMI Shielding

Shielding gaskets are mechanical devices used to protect electronics from EMI。 Traditionally, they were formed from metal sheets of aluminum, copper, or steel。 These sheets, however, were not malleable, and under sealing pressure, would deform and allow leakage to and from other electronic devices。

Today, shielding gaskets are formed from flexible metal screens, metal wires, metal foams, and coatings made of metallic ink. Some equipment, however, requires additional shielding benefits for such conditions as hot or cold weather—and for these purposes, conductive silicones are more appropriate.

Conductive silicones, or particle-filled silicones, are produced using silver, silver-aluminum, silver-copper, silver-glass, and nickel-graphite. Engineers might choose conductive silicones over traditional shielding gaskets because silicones resist sunlight, water, and a wide range of temperatures.

For instance, ruggedized touchscreens use conductive silicones to ensure environmental sealing in extreme weather conditions as well as to provide electrical conductivity。 Additionally, unlike some traditional EMI shielding gaskets, conductive silicones won’t stretch or become deformed during gasket cutting。

When deciding which type of metal or material to use for EMI shielding, consider the following:

  • Do you need protection against electric fields, magnetic fields, or both?
  • What is the device’s frequency range?
  • How difficult will the coating process be?
  • What are the shielding standards?
  • In what environment will the device be used?
  • How much corrosion resistance will be needed?
  • What is the cost for the materials?

EMI shielding is imperative for protecting equipment from interference, ensuring products work accordingly, and keeping users safe. To confirm that electrical or electronic equipment is compliant with FCC standards, it is important to test your products with an EMC testing lab, such as Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. We provide design and testing services with an emphasis on EMC/EMI, including Shielding Effectiveness Testing. To learn more about our process, check out our How We Do It page.

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Published in MultiPoint Blog

EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing is becoming more important than ever before due to emerging technological devices, such as personal entertainment and communication devices and electronic equipment that enhances consumer convenience. With the emergence of new technology, however, comes an increased potential for EMI (electromagnetic interference).


Such variables as lower supply voltages, high switching currents, and the demand for smaller and more affordable devices makes current and emerging technology more susceptible to EMI.

Proving EMC compliance is necessary in order to introduce a new product to the market。 Some engineers, however, don’t understand the basics of EMC testing, and those who do push it to later stages of device design, ignoring the fact that EMI should be considered during every stage of the design process。

EMC pre-compliance testing offers companies various benefits, including:

  • Reduced costs
  • Reduced probability for redesign
  • Mitigated delays
  • Increased chance of EMC compliance approval

斗地主达人To ensure that your products are safe for consumers and will work accordingly, it is essential to understand the basics of EMC testing and how to find a laboratory that will benefit your product and company。

EMC is grouped into two categories: immunity testing and emissions testing. Immunity testing measures how a device will react when exposed to EMI and emissions testing measures how much EMI a device generates.  

When the electric car was first introduced, many consumers were worried that EMI from the vehicle would affect pacemakers within passengers. EMC testing and EMI shielding, however, mitigated those concerns, ensuring that electric cars were, indeed, safe for all consumers. Thus, it is vital to test for EMI to ensure that devices are neither susceptible to interference from nor a risk to other devices.

To better understand the significance of EMC testing, consider the below devices and how they can affect consumers both positively and negatively。

  • Medical Devices: Hospitals are jam-packed with medical and electronic equipment, from front-desk computers to MRI machines. For hospitals to run safely and efficiently, their equipment must be able to work within close proximity. If certain devices were to interfere with medical equipment then patients’ health would be in jeopardy. Many hospitals post signs that deter patients from using cellphones due to EMI, but with EMC testing and EMI shielding, cellphones now pose little risk to medical equipment.
  • ilitary Devices: Because the military depends on electronic equipment—from autonomous vehicles to walkie-talkies—in order to fulfill important missions, EMI must be eradicated to ensure our troops’ and our country’s safety.
  • Consumer Devices: We use electronic equipment every day to accomplish various tasks, such as microwaving our food, making phone calls, and watching television. And we want our equipment to work because, well, most of us can’t exactly fix it ourselves when equipment begins to act up. Thus, EMC testing is important in providing convenience as well as safety to consumers.


Finding the perfect EMC testing lab for your device and company can be frustrating. Rhein Tech is a full-service design and compliance engineering test laboratory. Not only do we offer general EMC testing, but we also offer testing in more specific areas, such as:

  • RF (radio frequency)
  • Military and Aviation
  • Industrial
  • Scientific and Medical
  • Automotive
  • Electrical Safety
  • Shielding Effectiveness
  • Site Surveys
  • Radar Cross Section and High Range Resolution Measurements

Our lab not only tests for EMC; we also aid in the design process, emphasizing EMI/EMC in order to save your company time and money。

If the thought of EMI gives you a headache, let Rhein Tech design your product to mitigate any interference. We want to ensure that emerging technology is safe and efficient—and that it’s on the market as soon as possible. Check out our Contact斗地主达人 page for an online quote form today!

斗地主达人Sources: ,

Published in MultiPoint Blog

In the age of IoT (the Internet of Things), technology is easier and more convenient to use than ever. Our cars, home security systems, lighting fixtures, and even refrigerators are connected to the internet, allowing us to interact with them via our smartphones and laptops.

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斗地主达人On July 14, 2016, Argentina’s regulator, ENACOM (Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones), published Q2-60.14V16.1 for low power devices (superseding prior technical standard Q2-60.14V12.1).

ENACOM has offered a 180 day grace period from the date of publication whereby Q2-60.14V12.1 test reports will continue to be accepted. Once the grace period has ended, reports to the new standard Q2-60.14V16.1 must be submitted for both new and renewal Type Approval applications.

Significant changes in this new technical standard are:

  1. Number of samples required for local testing has been reduced.
    1. Devices transmitting on a single channel on the new standard Q2-60.14V16.1 require one sample.
    2. Devices transmitting on multiple channels on the new standard Q2-60.14V16.1 require one sample as long as the channel can be adjusted in the test SW of a single sample. If not, it is required to provide one sample each for low, middle, and top channels.
  2. Modular Approval is now acceptable and is sufficient for host devices. That is to say, a host device containing an Approved Low Power module does not need its own Type Approval certificate. In the case where Type Approval is being sought for the module, local testing must be carried out on the module itself*.
  3. Under Q2-60.14V16.1, local testing on the low power module can be performed if testing on the host is not possible due to product dimensions.

* Please note that where Modular Approval is being leveraged for host devices, manufacturers must ensure compliance with the technical requirements and field emission limits for the published standard.


Please contact Rhein Tech directly if you have additional questions or require testing & certification assistance. 703.689.0368

  1. The RE102 test method in MIL-STD-461E required using a 41” rod antenna below 30 MHz with the counterpoise grounded to the ground plane, which called into question the accuracy of the measurement results above the 10 MHz frequency range. To address this, MIL-STD-461F requires that the counterpoise be isolated from the groundplane.
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Mexico’s Type Approval regulator, Instituto Federal de Telecomunicaciones (IFT), recently announced that it will be closed for business from July 18, 2016 through July 29, 2016.  During this period, no Type Approval applications will be able to be submitted to IFT, and applications currently under review are expected to be delayed by up to 2 weeks.  

Published in MultiPoint Blog

South Africa - SABS Re-opened

Posted on February 28th 2020

The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) has recently re-opened and is accepting applications for EMC/EMI Type Approvals.  Changes to the process have been introduced, including a preliminary assessment by officials ahead of a formal review.  Foreign manufacturers are still permitted to act in the capacity of local Approval holder.  The approval price, lead time and documents needed to support such a request will vary depending on the type of product certification and the outcome of SABS’s initial review.

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Bhutan - New Type Approval Process

Posted on February 28th 2020

Bhutan’s regulatory authority, BICMA, recently implemented type approval certification of information and communications technology (ICT) equipment. International applicants who intend to export their ICT equipment to Bhutan must obtain a type approval certificate for their equipment. Type approved equipment should be affixed with a label as shown below:


Please note that a lot of ICT equipment, e。g。 mobile handsets, data modems, RTTE embedded in PC or laptop with output power less than 100mW, is exempted from the type approval certificate。

斗地主达人Please contact Rhein Tech if you have additional questions or testing requirements。 703。689。0368



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