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Tag: EMC testing

The Internet of Things—a newly realized vision of our world in which electronic devices interact with one another—is really not so new of a concept. In 1989, the first IoT device was engineered by John Romkey. In response to a dare, Romkey designed a smart toaster that connected to the internet using TC/IP networking, a toaster that could control the temperature of your toast and, in a later model, insert and extract your bread for you using a robotic crane. An impractical yet remarkable invention, the smart toaster was the first in a line of creations that would pave the way to the IoT ecosystem of the 21st century and beyond.

But designing IoT devices isn’t as easy as connecting previous products to the internet. The IoT ecosystem is delicate and vulnerable to cyberattacks. In addition, designing the products themselves comes with three key challenges.

Published in MultiPoint Blog

Testing electrical and electronic devices for EMC compliance can be a daunting task. With few local testing labs available, companies will often have to travel to find a certified testing lab that is equipped to assess their specific product. And due to the lack of available labs, companies often have to book testing sessions in advance and follow an unforgiving, strict schedule. The thought of EMC testing gives engineers a headache, but the thought of failing testing and having to repeat the process a second or third time is even more frustrating. For medical device engineers, whose standards are much stricter than other device standards, testing for EMC compliance is a bit of a nightmare. There is, however, a way to speed up the process of EMC testing while keeping costs low: prescreening devices for EMC compliance.

Published in MultiPoint Blog

When engineers begin designing their products, electromagnetic compatibility is usually the furthest thing from their minds。 EMC testing is often left until the very end of the design cycle because designers aren’t educated on EMC design (the process of planning and preparing for EMC testing) and techniques for mitigating electromagnetic interference—or they simply dread the subject。

Published in MultiPoint Blog

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a disturbance that causes the malfunction of electronic equipment. While some EMI does not pose a significant threat—such as static noise on the radio—EMI that affects critical infrastructure, military assets, and medical equipment can pose economic and, sometimes, life-threatening risks.

For instance, in 1989, EMI triggered by a geomagnetic storm disturbed the Hydro-Quebec power system. Within 92 seconds, the entire system collapsed, leaving six million people without power. This type of disaster can be extremely dangerous, as witnessed on July 13th, 2019 when New York City suffered a blackout, leaving 73,000 people without power in this summer’s intense heat. While there were no injuries or deaths reported, many were left without air conditioning, others stuck in elevators and traffic jams.

To prevent disasters like this, it is imperative to mitigate the susceptibility of electronic equipment to EMI. In order to accomplish such a task, engineers should be aware of the three types of EMI sources: inherent, natural, and man-made sources.

斗地主达人Inherent EMI

斗地主达人Inherent sources of EMI are those caused by the thermal agitation of electrons flowing through circuit resistance。 Thus, with this type of EMI, a device disrupts its own functioning。 Radio static is on example of inherent EMI。

Natural EMI

Natural sources of EMI are those caused by natural events, such as lightning, solar magnetic storms, rain particles, and solar radiation。 These sources of EMI do not pose a serious threat to electrical or electronic equipment, but they can affect older radio frequency communication equipment。 According to NOAA, however, solar geomagnetic storms, like the one described above, can cause such issues as:

  • Placing extra drag on satellites in low-earth orbit
  • Modifying the path of radio signals
  • Creating errors in positioning information provided by GPS
  • Disrupting GNSS and
  • Producing geomagnetic induced currents (GICs) in power grids and pipelines.

Man-Made EMI

Man-made sources of EMI are those produced by electrical or electronic equipment, such as powerlines, welders, generators, and computer circuits. Often, man-made EMI occurs when two signals are within close proximity to each other, and when not properly shielded, cause malfunction or disruption.

A sub-category of man-made EMI is intentional EMI (IEMI), which is often referred to as electronic warfare. Military assets and critical infrastructure are primary targets for such attacks and can face such threats as high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse, E-bombs, EMP cannons, and high-power microwave weapons.

Thus, it is imperative that such assets are properly shielded from EMI using conductive materials, which block electromagnetic emissions and reflect/absorb them. EMI shielding can be accomplished with EMI shielding gaskets and conductive silicones.

EMI Shielding

Shielding gaskets are mechanical devices used to protect electronics from EMI. Traditionally, they were formed from metal sheets of aluminum, copper, or steel. These sheets, however, were not malleable, and under sealing pressure, would deform and allow leakage to and from other electronic devices.

斗地主达人Today, shielding gaskets are formed from flexible metal screens, metal wires, metal foams, and coatings made of metallic ink. Some equipment, however, requires additional shielding benefits for such conditions as hot or cold weather—and for these purposes, conductive silicones are more appropriate.

Conductive silicones, or particle-filled silicones, are produced using silver, silver-aluminum, silver-copper, silver-glass, and nickel-graphite。 Engineers might choose conductive silicones over traditional shielding gaskets because silicones resist sunlight, water, and a wide range of temperatures。

For instance, ruggedized touchscreens use conductive silicones to ensure environmental sealing in extreme weather conditions as well as to provide electrical conductivity. Additionally, unlike some traditional EMI shielding gaskets, conductive silicones won’t stretch or become deformed during gasket cutting.

When deciding which type of metal or material to use for EMI shielding, consider the following:

  • Do you need protection against electric fields, magnetic fields, or both?
  • What is the device’s frequency range?
  • How difficult will the coating process be?
  • What are the shielding standards?
  • In what environment will the device be used?
  • How much corrosion resistance will be needed?
  • What is the cost for the materials?

EMI shielding is imperative for protecting equipment from interference, ensuring products work accordingly, and keeping users safe. To confirm that electrical or electronic equipment is compliant with FCC standards, it is important to test your products with an EMC testing lab, such as Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. We provide design and testing services with an emphasis on EMC/EMI, including Shielding Effectiveness Testing. To learn more about our process, check out our How We Do It page.

斗地主达人Sources: ,

Published in MultiPoint Blog

EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing is becoming more important than ever before due to emerging technological devices, such as personal entertainment and communication devices and electronic equipment that enhances consumer convenience. With the emergence of new technology, however, comes an increased potential for EMI (electromagnetic interference).


Such variables as lower supply voltages, high switching currents, and the demand for smaller and more affordable devices makes current and emerging technology more susceptible to EMI.

Proving EMC compliance is necessary in order to introduce a new product to the market. Some engineers, however, don’t understand the basics of EMC testing, and those who do push it to later stages of device design, ignoring the fact that EMI should be considered during every stage of the design process.

EMC pre-compliance testing offers companies various benefits, including:

  • Reduced costs
  • Reduced probability for redesign
  • Mitigated delays
  • Increased chance of EMC compliance approval

To ensure that your products are safe for consumers and will work accordingly, it is essential to understand the basics of EMC testing and how to find a laboratory that will benefit your product and company.

EMC is grouped into two categories: immunity testing and emissions testing. Immunity testing measures how a device will react when exposed to EMI and emissions testing measures how much EMI a device generates.  

When the electric car was first introduced, many consumers were worried that EMI from the vehicle would affect pacemakers within passengers. EMC testing and EMI shielding, however, mitigated those concerns, ensuring that electric cars were, indeed, safe for all consumers. Thus, it is vital to test for EMI to ensure that devices are neither susceptible to interference from nor a risk to other devices.

To better understand the significance of EMC testing, consider the below devices and how they can affect consumers both positively and negatively。

  • Medical Devices: Hospitals are jam-packed with medical and electronic equipment, from front-desk computers to MRI machines. For hospitals to run safely and efficiently, their equipment must be able to work within close proximity. If certain devices were to interfere with medical equipment then patients’ health would be in jeopardy. Many hospitals post signs that deter patients from using cellphones due to EMI, but with EMC testing and EMI shielding, cellphones now pose little risk to medical equipment.
  • ilitary Devices: Because the military depends on electronic equipment—from autonomous vehicles to walkie-talkies—in order to fulfill important missions, EMI must be eradicated to ensure our troops’ and our country’s safety.
  • Consumer Devices: We use electronic equipment every day to accomplish various tasks, such as microwaving our food, making phone calls, and watching television. And we want our equipment to work because, well, most of us can’t exactly fix it ourselves when equipment begins to act up. Thus, EMC testing is important in providing convenience as well as safety to consumers.


Finding the perfect EMC testing lab for your device and company can be frustrating。 Rhein Tech is a full-service design and compliance engineering test laboratory。 Not only do we offer general EMC testing, but we also offer testing in more specific areas, such as:

  • RF (radio frequency)
  • Military and Aviation
  • Industrial
  • Scientific and Medical
  • Automotive
  • Electrical Safety
  • Shielding Effectiveness
  • Site Surveys
  • Radar Cross Section and High Range Resolution Measurements

Our lab not only tests for EMC; we also aid in the design process, emphasizing EMI/EMC in order to save your company time and money。

If the thought of EMI gives you a headache, let Rhein Tech design your product to mitigate any interference. We want to ensure that emerging technology is safe and efficient—and that it’s on the market as soon as possible. Check out our Contact page for an online quote form today!

Sources: ,

In the age of IoT (the Internet of Things), technology is easier and more convenient to use than ever。 Our cars, home security systems, lighting fixtures, and even refrigerators are connected to the internet, allowing us to interact with them via our smartphones and laptops。

Published in MultiPoint Blog

EU: New IEC Standards Recently Released

Posted on February 28th 2020

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • - (8/4/17) - Amendment 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
  • - (8/4/17) - Amendment 1 - Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Coupling devices for conducted disturbance measurements
  • - (8/4/17) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
  • - (8/4/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 7: Equipment protection by increased safety "e"
  • - (8/9/17) - Transmitting equipment for radiocommunication - Radio-over fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement - Part 1: Radio-over-fibre technologies for antenna measurement
  • - (8/10/17) - Transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - EMC requirements
  • - (8/23/17) - Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure
  • - (8/23/17) - Interpretation Sheet 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-15: Testing and measurement techniques - Flickermeter - Functional and design specifications
  • - (8/24/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 18: Equipment protection by encapsulation "m"
  • - (8/25/17) - Metallic cables and other passive components test methods - Part 4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Surface transfer impedance - line injection method
  • - (8/31/17) - Metallic cables and other passive components test methods - Part 4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Surface transfer impedance - line injection method
  • - (8/25/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 46: Equipment assemblies
  • - (9/1/17) - Environmental testing - Part 2-52: Tests - Test Kb: Salt mist, cyclic (sodium chloride solution)
  • - (9/8/17) - Reference conditions and procedures for testing industrial and process measurement transmitters - Part 1: General procedures for all types of transmitters


See for additional information.

Published in MultiPoint Blog

Serbia – New EMC and LVD Rules

Posted on February 28th 2020

On July 1, 2017, Serbia’s Ministry of Economy adopted and published new rules on electromagnetic compatibility and safety in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia (No 25/16)。 Notable changes from the prior rules are as follows:

  1. New EMC and LVD Certificates of Conformity (CoC) are now valid for 5 years
  2. Devices listed below no longer require an EMC CoC:
    1. Appliances supplied without battery chargers or adapters for low voltage distribution network, which only use replaceable batteries or computer connectors as the power source;
    2. Computer components, other than power units;
    3. Machines falling under the separate machinery safety regulation (exceptions are portable tools with electric motors of nominal AC up to 250 V for household and similar use);
    4. Appliances which have been examined and verified by a Serbian Notified Body.


The new rules do not affect previously certified products. Manufacturers will apply for renewal according to the new rules when existing approvals expire. The new rules can be found . No English versions are available at this time but should be available in the future.

Published in MultiPoint Blog

EU – RED Guidance

Posted on February 28th 2020


Recently, the EU Commission released situation as follows:

  • The new RED regulations became necessary due to the increasing number of devices with integrated radio capabilities on the market.
  • The aim of the RED is to ensure that all electrical and electronic devices that emit or receive radio waves adhere to essential safety and health requirements, taking care of the efficient use of radio spectrum and electromagnetic compatibility。
  • The RED became applicable on June 13, 2016 with a transitional period of one year, to ensure smooth transition from the former R&TTE Directive。

Currently ETSI, the European standardization organization, has submitted roughly 70% of the total standards needed。 Of these, 65 standards were received positively。 The EU commission and ETSI are now working on a solution to quickly increase the number of standards available by the beginning of June 2017。

In the meantime, manufacturers and suppliers are advised as follows:

  • In case ETSI does not deliver the missing standards on time, and/or the EU commission and ETSI cannot agree on a solution to speed up the process:
    • the EU commission could, on an interim basis, enforce the former R&TTE rules, for the currently missing standards
    • manufacturers can use alternative conformity assessment procedures to show that their products meet the requirements to legally place their products on the market in the EU and affix the CE marking. This can be achieved by using an accredited test laboratory in combination with a Notified Body.
Recently, our lab was asked about the FCC frequency stability requirements for 902 - 928 MHz wireless transmitters.  We advised our client that transmitters that operate within the 902 - 928 MHz band are subject to FCC . The wireless transmitter carrier’s 20 dB bandwidth must be within the 902 - 928 MHz frequency band where operation is permitted under all conditions including modulation, frequency sweeping, hopping and stability, the frequency tolerance of the carrier, and over variation in temperature.

The frequency accuracy of your wireless transmitter carrier’s signal must be within ±0。001% of the operating frequency over a temperature variation of −20 degrees to +50 degrees C at normal supply voltage, as well as for variation in the primary supply voltage from 85% to 115% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20 degrees C。 If your wireless transmitter is battery operated, it must be tested using a new battery。


Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ hfytxx.com

Published in FCC
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