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Tag: electromagnetic compatibility testing

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a disturbance that causes the malfunction of electronic equipment. While some EMI does not pose a significant threat—such as static noise on the radio—EMI that affects critical infrastructure, military assets, and medical equipment can pose economic and, sometimes, life-threatening risks.

For instance, in 1989, EMI triggered by a geomagnetic storm disturbed the Hydro-Quebec power system. Within 92 seconds, the entire system collapsed, leaving six million people without power. This type of disaster can be extremely dangerous, as witnessed on July 13th, 2019 when New York City suffered a blackout, leaving 73,000 people without power in this summer’s intense heat. While there were no injuries or deaths reported, many were left without air conditioning, others stuck in elevators and traffic jams.

To prevent disasters like this, it is imperative to mitigate the susceptibility of electronic equipment to EMI. In order to accomplish such a task, engineers should be aware of the three types of EMI sources: inherent, natural, and man-made sources.

Inherent EMI

Inherent sources of EMI are those caused by the thermal agitation of electrons flowing through circuit resistance. Thus, with this type of EMI, a device disrupts its own functioning. Radio static is on example of inherent EMI.

斗地主达人Natural EMI

Natural sources of EMI are those caused by natural events, such as lightning, solar magnetic storms, rain particles, and solar radiation. These sources of EMI do not pose a serious threat to electrical or electronic equipment, but they can affect older radio frequency communication equipment. According to NOAA, however, solar geomagnetic storms, like the one described above, can cause such issues as:

  • Placing extra drag on satellites in low-earth orbit
  • Modifying the path of radio signals
  • Creating errors in positioning information provided by GPS
  • Disrupting GNSS and
  • Producing geomagnetic induced currents (GICs) in power grids and pipelines.

Man-Made EMI

Man-made sources of EMI are those produced by electrical or electronic equipment, such as powerlines, welders, generators, and computer circuits. Often, man-made EMI occurs when two signals are within close proximity to each other, and when not properly shielded, cause malfunction or disruption.

斗地主达人A sub-category of man-made EMI is intentional EMI (IEMI), which is often referred to as electronic warfare. Military assets and critical infrastructure are primary targets for such attacks and can face such threats as high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse, E-bombs, EMP cannons, and high-power microwave weapons.

Thus, it is imperative that such assets are properly shielded from EMI using conductive materials, which block electromagnetic emissions and reflect/absorb them. EMI shielding can be accomplished with EMI shielding gaskets and conductive silicones.

EMI Shielding

Shielding gaskets are mechanical devices used to protect electronics from EMI. Traditionally, they were formed from metal sheets of aluminum, copper, or steel. These sheets, however, were not malleable, and under sealing pressure, would deform and allow leakage to and from other electronic devices.

Today, shielding gaskets are formed from flexible metal screens, metal wires, metal foams, and coatings made of metallic ink。 Some equipment, however, requires additional shielding benefits for such conditions as hot or cold weather—and for these purposes, conductive silicones are more appropriate。

斗地主达人Conductive silicones, or particle-filled silicones, are produced using silver, silver-aluminum, silver-copper, silver-glass, and nickel-graphite. Engineers might choose conductive silicones over traditional shielding gaskets because silicones resist sunlight, water, and a wide range of temperatures.

For instance, ruggedized touchscreens use conductive silicones to ensure environmental sealing in extreme weather conditions as well as to provide electrical conductivity. Additionally, unlike some traditional EMI shielding gaskets, conductive silicones won’t stretch or become deformed during gasket cutting.

When deciding which type of metal or material to use for EMI shielding, consider the following:

  • Do you need protection against electric fields, magnetic fields, or both?
  • What is the device’s frequency range?
  • How difficult will the coating process be?
  • What are the shielding standards?
  • In what environment will the device be used?
  • How much corrosion resistance will be needed?
  • What is the cost for the materials?

EMI shielding is imperative for protecting equipment from interference, ensuring products work accordingly, and keeping users safe. To confirm that electrical or electronic equipment is compliant with FCC standards, it is important to test your products with an EMC testing lab, such as Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. We provide design and testing services with an emphasis on EMC/EMI, including Shielding Effectiveness Testing. To learn more about our process, check out our How We Do It page.

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Published in MultiPoint Blog

The light rail, a transit technology that employs lighter rail cars than traditional rail systems, has steadily grown in popularity in the United States since the Obama Administration. Such cities as Seattle, Portland, and Charlotte have profited from the use of light rails, which offer a variety of benefits, including less traffic congestion in population-dense cities; environmental advantages; quieter operation; high passenger capacity; and greater access to amenities.


Figure 1: Light rail in Portland, Oregon


Recently, however, there has been pushback against light rail systems, especially in the case of the Durham-Orange Light Rail System, whose project was discontinued on March 27th斗地主达人, 2019. After two decades of research, design, engineering, and funding, Duke University, who had originally signed a non-binding memorandum in which they agreed to cooperate with GoTriangle, who was overseeing the project at that time, rejected the project, angering Durham officials who were desperately in favor of light rail.

The Durham-Orange Light Rail System would have benefitted North Carolina in numerous ways, including spurring the development of affordable housing in Durham。 The project, however, would have caused electromagnetic interference (EMI) that would affect Duke University’s medical and research facilities。

Light Rail and EMI

EMI, or electromagnetic interference, refers to the electromagnetic energy issued from outside sources, such as radios or microwave ovens, which interferes with another device’s electromagnetic energy. Light rail systems produce transient magnetic fields that affect Geo-magnetic and Quasi-DC magnetic fields. Disruption to the magnetic field is caused by two primary sources:

  • Electric currents that power the light rail and produce transient magnetic fields
  • The steel mass of light rail vehicles, which causes localized magnetic field shifts as the train passes


Figure 2: Main electric traction system conductors


EMC, or electromagnetic compatibility, refers to the coexistence of electromagnetic energy from multiple devices. When a device is EMC certified, it does not interfere with another device and vice versa. Electronic equipment, including railway systems, must undergo EMC testing to be deemed safe for civilians as well as surrounding technology.

Duke University provided a list of susceptible medical equipment to GoTriangle, which included two electron microscopes and six MRI machines。 With EMC testing, these problems could have been mitigated。 In fact, facilities at the University of Minnesota and University of Washington mitigated EMI issues caused by a nearby transit。 Despite this, however, Duke University refused to sign the agreement allowing GoTriangle to continue construction。

Light rail systems could provide various benefits to the Unites States, including less traffic congestion, less automobile pollution, economic development, and transportation alternatives for tourists and low-income residents. Despite the fact that light rail systems pose EMI risks, they are beneficial to society and the environment—and these EMI risks can be mitigated.

At Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc。, we provide general purpose EMC testing as well as specific, industry-based EMC testing for fields such as Scientific and Medical, Automotive, Industrial, and Shielding Effectiveness。 Don’t let the fear of possible EMI complications halt your next project。 Whether you need assistance designing your project to meet EMC standards or recommendations for mitigating EMI concerns, Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc。 can help。

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Published in MultiPoint Blog

In the age of IoT (the Internet of Things), technology is easier and more convenient to use than ever. Our cars, home security systems, lighting fixtures, and even refrigerators are connected to the internet, allowing us to interact with them via our smartphones and laptops.

Published in MultiPoint Blog

On August 26, 2016, modifications to the Mexican foreign trade rules and criteria were published in the , regarding all devices approved under the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 and previous NOM-121-SCT12009 standards pertaining to devices operating in the following bands: 2400-2483。5 MHz, 5725-5850 MHz and 902-928 MHz。

The new Mexican foreign trade requirements call for the mandatory presentation of Certificates of Conformity (NYCE certificates) issued under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 at Mexican Customs for all devices operating on the frequency bands specified above. Because of this, there is a risk that any Certificates of Conformity issued under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) will not be accepted by Customs.

In conflict, IFT technical provision IFT-008-2016 states that all Certificates obtained under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) would remain valid with no need to re-certify under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015。 Because of this confusion, Mexican Secretaria de Economía (SE) issued a notification on August 29, 2016 stating that any Certificates of Conformity or IFT Approval Certificates issued under the previous NOM-121-SCT1 2009 standard must be accepted at Customs and fulfil the requirements stated in the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015。

Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a copy of the SE’s August 29, 2016 notification at Mexican Customs for all devices in order to prove compliance and ensure Customs delays are not incurred due to this confusion。

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. for any questions and/or testing requirements. 703. 689. 0368 or email sales @ hfytxx.com.

Published in MultiPoint Blog

Mexico - New Logo Standard

Posted on February 28th 2020

Mexico’s Secretaria de Economía (SE Mexico) recently issued the Draft Mexican Official Standard PROY-NOM-106-SCFI-2016。 In Mexico, products must be compliant with the Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization to be able to be imported/commercialized products in Mexico。 There are two types of standards, Official Mexican Standards (NOM) and voluntary Mexican standards (NMX)。 The new logo standard will be enforced in the near future。

Proposed new regulation:

  • A change in the dimensions of the letter, “M”, in the NOM logo
  • If a product complies with a voluntary standard, it may now have the NMX logo.
  • If the product complies with both official and voluntary standards, then it suggests the use of two logos, NOM and NMX, instead of just the NOM logo.

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. for any questions and or testing requirements. 703. 689. 0368

Published in MultiPoint Blog

On July 14, 2016, Argentina’s regulator, ENACOM (Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones), published Q2-60.14V16.1 for low power devices (superseding prior technical standard Q2-60.14V12.1).

ENACOM has offered a 180 day grace period from the date of publication whereby Q2-60.14V12.1 test reports will continue to be accepted. Once the grace period has ended, reports to the new standard Q2-60.14V16.1 must be submitted for both new and renewal Type Approval applications.

Significant changes in this new technical standard are:

  1. Number of samples required for local testing has been reduced.
    1. Devices transmitting on a single channel on the new standard Q2-60.14V16.1 require one sample.
    2. Devices transmitting on multiple channels on the new standard Q2-60.14V16.1 require one sample as long as the channel can be adjusted in the test SW of a single sample. If not, it is required to provide one sample each for low, middle, and top channels.
  2. Modular Approval is now acceptable and is sufficient for host devices. That is to say, a host device containing an Approved Low Power module does not need its own Type Approval certificate. In the case where Type Approval is being sought for the module, local testing must be carried out on the module itself*.
  3. Under Q2-60.14V16.1, local testing on the low power module can be performed if testing on the host is not possible due to product dimensions.

* Please note that where Modular Approval is being leveraged for host devices, manufacturers must ensure compliance with the technical requirements and field emission limits for the published standard.


Please contact Rhein Tech directly if you have additional questions or require testing & certification assistance. 703.689.0368

Published in MultiPoint Blog

South Africa - SABS Re-opened

Posted on February 28th 2020

The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) has recently re-opened and is accepting applications for EMC/EMI Type Approvals.  Changes to the process have been introduced, including a preliminary assessment by officials ahead of a formal review.  Foreign manufacturers are still permitted to act in the capacity of local Approval holder.  The approval price, lead time and documents needed to support such a request will vary depending on the type of product certification and the outcome of SABS’s initial review.

The FDA has issued final guidance for medical device electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).  This final guidance document details a number of primary components that are needed from U.S. manufacturers in order to obtain pre-market clearance or approval for supporting claims of medical device EMC.

Proof of EMC ensures that a device is able to function in its intended environment without introducing excessive electromagnetic disturbance capable of causing electromagnetic interference with other electronically powered devices.  In addition to following existing requirements and testing standards, registrants should include the following information in their applications:

  •         Environment intended for use
  •     Summary of all testing conducted to support EMC claims
  •          List of standards specifications met (including immunity test levels)
  •          Summary of device-specific tests including performance data and pass/fail criteria
  •          Device labeling and supporting documentation of compliance
  •      Details on any changes made to the device for it to pass one or more EMC tests 

It should be noted that additional information may be requested from the FDA Reviewer.  The final guidance document can be found at ““. 

Published in MultiPoint Blog

Bhutan - New Type Approval Process

Posted on February 28th 2020

Bhutan’s regulatory authority, BICMA, recently implemented type approval certification of information and communications technology (ICT) equipment. International applicants who intend to export their ICT equipment to Bhutan must obtain a type approval certificate for their equipment. Type approved equipment should be affixed with a label as shown below:


Please note that a lot of ICT equipment, e.g. mobile handsets, data modems, RTTE embedded in PC or laptop with output power less than 100mW, is exempted from the type approval certificate.

Please contact Rhein Tech if you have additional questions or testing requirements. 703.689.0368



Published in MultiPoint Blog

Papua New Guinea’s National Information & Communications Technology Authority (NICTA) has recently launched a public consultation on the following ICT technical standards and specifications:

  1. Technical Guideline for WiMax Technology;
  2. Technical Standards for Operation of V-SAT & Ancillary Equipment;
  3. Type Approval Standards for Wireless Broadband Access Equipment;
  4. Type Approval Standards for Wireless Local Area Network Equipment;
  5. EMC and Safety Requirement for ICT Equipment;
  6. Type Approval Specification for DVB-T2.

These are new standards and specifications, and do not replace any previous versions. The purpose of these technical standards and specifications is to clarify specific requirements for each technology’s type approval, frequency assignments, etc. The public consultation process has been ongoing since January 15, 2016 and a closure date has not yet been confirmed.

Please contact Rhein Tech if you have additional questions or testing requirements. 703.689.0368



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