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Tag: electromagnetic compatibility

The light rail, a transit technology that employs lighter rail cars than traditional rail systems, has steadily grown in popularity in the United States since the Obama Administration。 Such cities as Seattle, Portland, and Charlotte have profited from the use of light rails, which offer a variety of benefits, including less traffic congestion in population-dense cities; environmental advantages; quieter operation; high passenger capacity; and greater access to amenities。


Figure 1: Light rail in Portland, Oregon


Recently, however, there has been pushback against light rail systems, especially in the case of the Durham-Orange Light Rail System, whose project was discontinued on March 27th, 2019. After two decades of research, design, engineering, and funding, Duke University, who had originally signed a non-binding memorandum in which they agreed to cooperate with GoTriangle, who was overseeing the project at that time, rejected the project, angering Durham officials who were desperately in favor of light rail.

The Durham-Orange Light Rail System would have benefitted North Carolina in numerous ways, including spurring the development of affordable housing in Durham。 The project, however, would have caused electromagnetic interference (EMI) that would affect Duke University’s medical and research facilities。

Light Rail and EMI

斗地主达人EMI, or electromagnetic interference, refers to the electromagnetic energy issued from outside sources, such as radios or microwave ovens, which interferes with another device’s electromagnetic energy. Light rail systems produce transient magnetic fields that affect Geo-magnetic and Quasi-DC magnetic fields. Disruption to the magnetic field is caused by two primary sources:

  • Electric currents that power the light rail and produce transient magnetic fields
  • The steel mass of light rail vehicles, which causes localized magnetic field shifts as the train passes


Figure 2: Main electric traction system conductors


EMC, or electromagnetic compatibility, refers to the coexistence of electromagnetic energy from multiple devices. When a device is EMC certified, it does not interfere with another device and vice versa. Electronic equipment, including railway systems, must undergo EMC testing to be deemed safe for civilians as well as surrounding technology.

Duke University provided a list of susceptible medical equipment to GoTriangle, which included two electron microscopes and six MRI machines。 With EMC testing, these problems could have been mitigated。 In fact, facilities at the University of Minnesota and University of Washington mitigated EMI issues caused by a nearby transit。 Despite this, however, Duke University refused to sign the agreement allowing GoTriangle to continue construction。

斗地主达人Light rail systems could provide various benefits to the Unites States, including less traffic congestion, less automobile pollution, economic development, and transportation alternatives for tourists and low-income residents. Despite the fact that light rail systems pose EMI risks, they are beneficial to society and the environment—and these EMI risks can be mitigated.

At Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc., we provide general purpose EMC testing as well as specific, industry-based EMC testing for fields such as Scientific and Medical, Automotive, Industrial, and Shielding Effectiveness. Don’t let the fear of possible EMI complications halt your next project. Whether you need assistance designing your project to meet EMC standards or recommendations for mitigating EMI concerns, Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. can help.

斗地主达人Sources: ,

Published in MultiPoint Blog

EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing is becoming more important than ever before due to emerging technological devices, such as personal entertainment and communication devices and electronic equipment that enhances consumer convenience. With the emergence of new technology, however, comes an increased potential for EMI (electromagnetic interference).


Such variables as lower supply voltages, high switching currents, and the demand for smaller and more affordable devices makes current and emerging technology more susceptible to EMI.

Proving EMC compliance is necessary in order to introduce a new product to the market. Some engineers, however, don’t understand the basics of EMC testing, and those who do push it to later stages of device design, ignoring the fact that EMI should be considered during every stage of the design process.

EMC pre-compliance testing offers companies various benefits, including:

  • Reduced costs
  • Reduced probability for redesign
  • Mitigated delays
  • Increased chance of EMC compliance approval

To ensure that your products are safe for consumers and will work accordingly, it is essential to understand the basics of EMC testing and how to find a laboratory that will benefit your product and company。

EMC is grouped into two categories: immunity testing and emissions testing. Immunity testing measures how a device will react when exposed to EMI and emissions testing measures how much EMI a device generates.  

When the electric car was first introduced, many consumers were worried that EMI from the vehicle would affect pacemakers within passengers. EMC testing and EMI shielding, however, mitigated those concerns, ensuring that electric cars were, indeed, safe for all consumers. Thus, it is vital to test for EMI to ensure that devices are neither susceptible to interference from nor a risk to other devices.

To better understand the significance of EMC testing, consider the below devices and how they can affect consumers both positively and negatively.

  • Medical Devices: Hospitals are jam-packed with medical and electronic equipment, from front-desk computers to MRI machines. For hospitals to run safely and efficiently, their equipment must be able to work within close proximity. If certain devices were to interfere with medical equipment then patients’ health would be in jeopardy. Many hospitals post signs that deter patients from using cellphones due to EMI, but with EMC testing and EMI shielding, cellphones now pose little risk to medical equipment.
  • ilitary Devices: Because the military depends on electronic equipment—from autonomous vehicles to walkie-talkies—in order to fulfill important missions, EMI must be eradicated to ensure our troops’ and our country’s safety.
  • Consumer Devices: We use electronic equipment every day to accomplish various tasks, such as microwaving our food, making phone calls, and watching television. And we want our equipment to work because, well, most of us can’t exactly fix it ourselves when equipment begins to act up. Thus, EMC testing is important in providing convenience as well as safety to consumers.


Finding the perfect EMC testing lab for your device and company can be frustrating. Rhein Tech is a full-service design and compliance engineering test laboratory. Not only do we offer general EMC testing, but we also offer testing in more specific areas, such as:

  • RF (radio frequency)
  • Military and Aviation
  • Industrial
  • Scientific and Medical
  • Automotive
  • Electrical Safety
  • Shielding Effectiveness
  • Site Surveys
  • Radar Cross Section and High Range Resolution Measurements

Our lab not only tests for EMC; we also aid in the design process, emphasizing EMI/EMC in order to save your company time and money.

If the thought of EMI gives you a headache, let Rhein Tech design your product to mitigate any interference. We want to ensure that emerging technology is safe and efficient—and that it’s on the market as soon as possible. Check out our Contact page for an online quote form today!

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Published in MultiPoint Blog

In the age of IoT (the Internet of Things), technology is easier and more convenient to use than ever. Our cars, home security systems, lighting fixtures, and even refrigerators are connected to the internet, allowing us to interact with them via our smartphones and laptops.

In today’s age, product designers are finding it more difficult to establish electromagnetic compatibility in a cost-effective manner—and this is largely due to the Internet of Things. Wireless connectivity, while convenient and useful for consumers, often requires a device to contain multiple RF interfaces, which poses a number of problems for designers.

Published in MultiPoint Blog
Recently, our lab was asked about the FCC frequency stability requirements for 902 - 928 MHz wireless transmitters.  We advised our client that transmitters that operate within the 902 - 928 MHz band are subject to FCC . The wireless transmitter carrier’s 20 dB bandwidth must be within the 902 - 928 MHz frequency band where operation is permitted under all conditions including modulation, frequency sweeping, hopping and stability, the frequency tolerance of the carrier, and over variation in temperature.

The frequency accuracy of your wireless transmitter carrier’s signal must be within ±0。001% of the operating frequency over a temperature variation of −20 degrees to +50 degrees C at normal supply voltage, as well as for variation in the primary supply voltage from 85% to 115% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20 degrees C。 If your wireless transmitter is battery operated, it must be tested using a new battery。


Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech。com

Published in FCC
Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
Does the FCC allow us to certify equipment that was initially verified? And what exactly are the differences between a verification, a certification, and a declaration of conformity (DoC)?
Our reply to this question is: No, you cannot.

The FCC does not allow certification for a device that is subject to verification. The difference between a verification, certification and DoC are as follows:

  • Verification - is a procedure where the manufacturer makes measurements or takes the necessary steps to insure that the equipment complies with the appropriate technical standards.  Verification attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the manufacturer or importer which are identical as defined in 47CF§2.908 to the sample tested and found acceptable by the manufacturer.  Products subject to verification are typically intended for industrial and/or commercial use.
  • Certification - is an equipment authorization issued by, or on behalf of, the FCC based on representations and test data submitted by an applicant.
  • Declaration of Conformity -  is a procedure where the responsible party as defined in 47CFR§2.909 makes measurements or takes other necessary steps to insure that the equipment complies with the appropriate technical standards.  The DoC attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are identical, as defined in 47CFR§2.908, to the sample tested and found acceptable by the responsible party.  Products subject to DoC are typically intended for consumer use. 

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech。com

Published in FCC

On August 26, 2016, modifications to the Mexican foreign trade rules and criteria were published in the , regarding all devices approved under the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 and previous NOM-121-SCT12009 standards pertaining to devices operating in the following bands: 2400-2483.5 MHz, 5725-5850 MHz and 902-928 MHz.

The new Mexican foreign trade requirements call for the mandatory presentation of Certificates of Conformity (NYCE certificates) issued under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 at Mexican Customs for all devices operating on the frequency bands specified above. Because of this, there is a risk that any Certificates of Conformity issued under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) will not be accepted by Customs.

In conflict, IFT technical provision IFT-008-2016 states that all Certificates obtained under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) would remain valid with no need to re-certify under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015. Because of this confusion, Mexican Secretaria de Economía (SE) issued a notification on August 29, 2016 stating that any Certificates of Conformity or IFT Approval Certificates issued under the previous NOM-121-SCT1 2009 standard must be accepted at Customs and fulfil the requirements stated in the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015.

Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a copy of the SE’s August 29, 2016 notification at Mexican Customs for all devices in order to prove compliance and ensure Customs delays are not incurred due to this confusion.

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc。 for any questions and/or testing requirements。 703。 689。 0368 or email sales @ rheintech。com。

Published in MultiPoint Blog

EU – RED Update

Posted on February 28th 2020

The (RED) 2014/53/EU becomes mandatory as of June 13, 2017. Products placed on the EU market as of that date must comply with the RED; the R&TTE Directive will no longer be valid.

斗地主达人When a manufacturer assesses compliance of radio equipment under the essential requirements of RED Articles 3.2 and 3.3 and harmonized standards are (1) applied only in part, (2) available but not applied, or (3) are not available, then it is mandatory for that manufacturer to use a Notified Body (NB), per RED Article 17.4.

The standard will not be ready in time to be placed in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU) as a harmonized standard for the RED, therefore manufacturers will be required to use a NB for the type of equipment falling under this standard, including Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) and 5 GHz high performance RLANs, until the document is finalized and becomes a harmonized standard, which may create a high demand for NB involvement in the meantime。

To find out more, please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. at sales @ hfytxx.com or call us at 703.689. 0368.
Published in MultiPoint Blog
Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
We have a module that does not include a RF shield, however we meet the standalone requirement for a module with a RF shield。 Can we qualify for FCC certification as a standalone module?
Our reply to this question is: No, you cannot.

To qualify as a standalone module, the RF (radio frequency) circuitry must be shielded, even if the module meets the limits in a standalone configuration without it. The RF section of the module must be shielded to help prevent RF coupling when the module is installed in a host, so it’s not enough for it to meet only the limits of the standalone configuration.

The shielding design must fully enfold all the RF circuitry, including the top, all sides, and the bottom, which may be a shielding ground plane. The shielding must be made of sheet metal, metal mesh, or a metallic ink-coated material expressly designed as an effective shield. Any holes in the shield must be significantly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation that is being blocked, to effectively approximate an unbroken conducting surface.

The other module circuitry, i.e. flash memory, temperature sensor, input voltage regulators, input data buffering circuits, etc. may not be RF circuitry, and therefore do not need to be shielded. However, the onus is on the grantee to employ sound engineering judgment to reduce/eliminate any possible RF coupling that might affect a host interface.

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ hfytxx.com

Published in MultiPoint Blog
Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
Under what conditions does the FCC allow standard antenna connectors under Part 15。203?
We replied as follows:

Under , the FCC allows the use of standard antenna connectors only when the device requires professional installation.

In all other cases, intentional radiators must be designed with a permanently attached antenna(s) or a unique antenna connector that ensures that only the antenna(s) certified and furnished by the grantee can be used. An example would be a wireless local area network, typically user-installed, and therefore requires a unique connector.

If professional installation is optional, the FCC does not allow the use of a standard antenna connector. When professional installation is required, the certification grant includes this condition.

An applicant must clearly demonstrate the requirement for professional installation by providing to the satisfaction of the FCC the following information about the device:

  1. intended use
  2. installation requirements
  3. marketing methods

The FCC has permitted standard connectors on intentional radiators in the following situations:

  • Point-to-point applications require a tower-mounted, directional antenna.  The device is advertised in special trade publications and/or demonstrated at targeted trade shows.  The applicant satisfied the 3 information requirements listed above to demonstrate the need for professional installation.  
  • Data and control signal transmitters located in oil fields; 
  • Transmitters mounted on trains and in train stations; 
  • Pole–mounted transmitters used by utility companies; 
  • Transmitters mounted on traffic signals for use by police and/or emergency vehicles.


Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ hfytxx.com

Published in MultiPoint Blog
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