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An Insider Blog from Leaders on EMC & Radar Engineering


斗地主达人The light rail, a transit technology that employs lighter rail cars than traditional rail systems, has steadily grown in popularity in the United States since the Obama Administration。 Such cities as Seattle, Portland, and Charlotte have profited from the use of light rails, which offer a variety of benefits, including less traffic congestion in population-dense cities; environmental advantages; quieter operation; high passenger capacity; and greater access to amenities。

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Figure 1: Light rail in Portland, Oregon

 

Recently, however, there has been pushback against light rail systems, especially in the case of the Durham-Orange Light Rail System, whose project was discontinued on March 27th, 2019. After two decades of research, design, engineering, and funding, Duke University, who had originally signed a non-binding memorandum in which they agreed to cooperate with GoTriangle, who was overseeing the project at that time, rejected the project, angering Durham officials who were desperately in favor of light rail.

The Durham-Orange Light Rail System would have benefitted North Carolina in numerous ways, including spurring the development of affordable housing in Durham. The project, however, would have caused electromagnetic interference (EMI) that would affect Duke University’s medical and research facilities.

Light Rail and EMI

EMI, or electromagnetic interference, refers to the electromagnetic energy issued from outside sources, such as radios or microwave ovens, which interferes with another device’s electromagnetic energy. Light rail systems produce transient magnetic fields that affect Geo-magnetic and Quasi-DC magnetic fields. Disruption to the magnetic field is caused by two primary sources:

  • Electric currents that power the light rail and produce transient magnetic fields
  • The steel mass of light rail vehicles, which causes localized magnetic field shifts as the train passes

 

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Figure 2: Main electric traction system conductors

 

EMC, or electromagnetic compatibility, refers to the coexistence of electromagnetic energy from multiple devices. When a device is EMC certified, it does not interfere with another device and vice versa. Electronic equipment, including railway systems, must undergo EMC testing to be deemed safe for civilians as well as surrounding technology.

Duke University provided a list of susceptible medical equipment to GoTriangle, which included two electron microscopes and six MRI machines。 With EMC testing, these problems could have been mitigated。 In fact, facilities at the University of Minnesota and University of Washington mitigated EMI issues caused by a nearby transit。 Despite this, however, Duke University refused to sign the agreement allowing GoTriangle to continue construction。

Light rail systems could provide various benefits to the Unites States, including less traffic congestion, less automobile pollution, economic development, and transportation alternatives for tourists and low-income residents。 Despite the fact that light rail systems pose EMI risks, they are beneficial to society and the environment—and these EMI risks can be mitigated。

At Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc。, we provide general purpose EMC testing as well as specific, industry-based EMC testing for fields such as Scientific and Medical, Automotive, Industrial, and Shielding Effectiveness。 Don’t let the fear of possible EMI complications halt your next project。 Whether you need assistance designing your project to meet EMC standards or recommendations for mitigating EMI concerns, Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc。 can help。

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EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) testing is becoming more important than ever before due to emerging technological devices, such as personal entertainment and communication devices and electronic equipment that enhances consumer convenience. With the emergence of new technology, however, comes an increased potential for EMI (electromagnetic interference).

 

Such variables as lower supply voltages, high switching currents, and the demand for smaller and more affordable devices makes current and emerging technology more susceptible to EMI.

Proving EMC compliance is necessary in order to introduce a new product to the market. Some engineers, however, don’t understand the basics of EMC testing, and those who do push it to later stages of device design, ignoring the fact that EMI should be considered during every stage of the design process.

EMC pre-compliance testing offers companies various benefits, including:

  • Reduced costs
  • Reduced probability for redesign
  • Mitigated delays
  • Increased chance of EMC compliance approval

斗地主达人To ensure that your products are safe for consumers and will work accordingly, it is essential to understand the basics of EMC testing and how to find a laboratory that will benefit your product and company.

EMC is grouped into two categories: immunity testing and emissions testing. Immunity testing measures how a device will react when exposed to EMI and emissions testing measures how much EMI a device generates.  

斗地主达人When the electric car was first introduced, many consumers were worried that EMI from the vehicle would affect pacemakers within passengers。 EMC testing and EMI shielding, however, mitigated those concerns, ensuring that electric cars were, indeed, safe for all consumers。 Thus, it is vital to test for EMI to ensure that devices are neither susceptible to interference from nor a risk to other devices。

To better understand the significance of EMC testing, consider the below devices and how they can affect consumers both positively and negatively.

  • Medical Devices: Hospitals are jam-packed with medical and electronic equipment, from front-desk computers to MRI machines. For hospitals to run safely and efficiently, their equipment must be able to work within close proximity. If certain devices were to interfere with medical equipment then patients’ health would be in jeopardy. Many hospitals post signs that deter patients from using cellphones due to EMI, but with EMC testing and EMI shielding, cellphones now pose little risk to medical equipment.
  • ilitary Devices: Because the military depends on electronic equipment—from autonomous vehicles to walkie-talkies—in order to fulfill important missions, EMI must be eradicated to ensure our troops’ and our country’s safety.
  • Consumer Devices: We use electronic equipment every day to accomplish various tasks, such as microwaving our food, making phone calls, and watching television. And we want our equipment to work because, well, most of us can’t exactly fix it ourselves when equipment begins to act up. Thus, EMC testing is important in providing convenience as well as safety to consumers.

 

Finding the perfect EMC testing lab for your device and company can be frustrating。 Rhein Tech is a full-service design and compliance engineering test laboratory。 Not only do we offer general EMC testing, but we also offer testing in more specific areas, such as:

  • RF (radio frequency)
  • Military and Aviation
  • Industrial
  • Scientific and Medical
  • Automotive
  • Electrical Safety
  • Shielding Effectiveness
  • Site Surveys
  • Radar Cross Section and High Range Resolution Measurements

Our lab not only tests for EMC; we also aid in the design process, emphasizing EMI/EMC in order to save your company time and money。

If the thought of EMI gives you a headache, let Rhein Tech design your product to mitigate any interference. We want to ensure that emerging technology is safe and efficient—and that it’s on the market as soon as possible. Check out our Contact page for an online quote form today!

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In the age of IoT (the Internet of Things), technology is easier and more convenient to use than ever. Our cars, home security systems, lighting fixtures, and even refrigerators are connected to the internet, allowing us to interact with them via our smartphones and laptops.

In today’s age, product designers are finding it more difficult to establish electromagnetic compatibility in a cost-effective manner—and this is largely due to the Internet of Things. Wireless connectivity, while convenient and useful for consumers, often requires a device to contain multiple RF interfaces, which poses a number of problems for designers.

Rhein Tech provides MIL-STD-461 testing / sales@hfytxx.com

斗地主达人This article is an overview of the emergence of CS116 testing with background, purpose, and how the testing is approached today。 CS116, known as Conducted susceptibility, damped sinusoidal transients, cables and power leads and MIL-STD-461 assigns applicability to a broad variety of applications and states the purpose to is to verify the ability of the EUT to withstand damped sinusoidal transients (Figure 1) coupled onto EUT associated cables and power leads。

Testing for this risk was introduced August 4, 1986, via the MIL-STD-462 Notice 5 release, adding test methods CS10 (pin injection) and CS11 (capacitive or inductive indirect). A short time later (15 October 1987) MIL-STD-462 Notice 6, supplemented by adding CS12 (a current pulse injection method) and CS13 (a single wire coupled pulse). Recall that back in those days MIL-STD-461 established applicability and limits and MIL-STD-462 provided the test method (how to accomplish) so both documents evolved together. These early day documents were very practical without much in the way of explaining the reasons behind the test (the “why” back-story), so we just did it (the testing) as specified.

Major changes in the MIL-STD-461/462 testing standards were in the works and only six short years later revision “D” of MIL-STD-461 and MIL-STD-462 were issued。 Dealing with the most recent change notices (CS10, CS11, CS12, CS13) was not the only update for revision “D”, but those four test methods became CS116 incorporating the means to replace the four prior tests。 Beginning with the revision “D” release, the standard included appendices, which used to some rationale and lessons learned that have been a tremendous help in explaining the test。 This section regarding CS116 provided such information and identification on sources that produced the interference。

Points associated with CS116 that have changed as we have moved forward with revisions to the current “G”, which included some CS116 changes are as follows:

Revision D:

  • Accomplish test on individual power leads (no test required on power return). Guidelines indicate that removal of cable shields was not intended to access individual power leads unless specified by procuring agency – so verify applicability.
  • Test at 0.01, 0.1,1, 10, 30, 100 MHz and resonant frequencies.
  • First waveform cycle may be positive or negative going.
  • Position monitor probe 5 cm from connector backshell unless connector and backshell exceed 5 cm then position as close as possible.
  • After calibrations and resonant characterization, slowly increase to test current or calibration limit and monitor EUT performance. Test at all frequencies with EUT powered on and powered off.

Revision E (changes)

  • At a minimum, compliance shall be demonstrated at 0.01, 0.1,1, 10, 30, 100 MHz. (This change meant that loop characterization was eliminated along with the associated resonant test which produced a worst-case maximum current or maximum voltage. If other frequencies were known to be critical, then those may be added to the testing. The basis for eliminating other frequencies was that testing had not identified susceptibility that were not also identified at one of the six fixed test frequencies.
  • Although not stated in the revision, we also need to consider that resonant frequency testing is difficult to match an installation. The cable arrangement significantly impacts resonance points because of the parasitic effects of the layout. This means that a resonant test in the laboratory is likely not to support a similar effect as installed unless the installation arrangement can be duplicated.
  • Revision F (changes)
  • Apply the calibrated test signals to each cable or power lead of the EUT sequentially. Reduce the signal, if necessary, to produce the required current. This changed from “increase slowly” to “apply maximum” at first. But this could lead to over-test damage. If you think that impedance could be low, then increasing gradually can be used. I think any circuit could have a low characteristic impedance until proven otherwise.
  • Power off test mode was eliminated.

Revision G (changes) – not significant in a manner affecting this discussion.

Withstand: “Withstand” is sometimes included when defining the test purpose and in other places in the standards, the term "susceptibility" was used. In many cases, susceptibility is associated with a transient event and it may be acceptable to allow some indication or disruption if a return to normal operation was achieved – a “withstand” allowance.  “Withstand” may be permitted as acceptable, subject to agreement with procuring agency.

Procedure

Since the beginning, the overall procedure has evolved as discussed (many details were not included above)。 

Calibration for CS116 has multiple aspects including all the details associated with waveform parameters and the additional target of establishing the drive level to produce the test current via the calibration fixture.

The calibration configuration (Figure 1) supports generation of the waveform in an optimum manner to demonstrate compliance to the standard. Once operating, adjust the generator output to the test current measured on the oscilloscope (don’t forget the various correction and conversion factors). Record the generator output amplitude as the maximum drive to be applied during test. With the waveform amplitude established, verify the other waveform parameters (frequency and dampening factor). If the waveform is not within specification, take corrective action and redo the calibration. Repeat the calibration procedure for each test frequency.

coax load

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part of the calibration is to assess the “Q” or the dampening factor. MIL-STD-461 requires a Q of 15 ±5 as calculated by the formula in Figure 2. The peak current at the 50% cycle is not 50% or peak current – it is the peak current of the cycle nearest the 50% current point. In the figure, N = 5.

 

Largest peak

 

Pay attention to the power and frequencies involved with this test, for example, the coaxial load can see peak power of 5 kW, so select a component with adequate ratings. A 10 W continuous power terminator can often support the peak 5 kW, but check. Be sure to protect the input of the oscilloscope, if necessary.

monitor probe

The testing part follows now that the calibration is complete. Configure the Equipment Under Test (EUT) (Figure 3) into the operational mode for testing using the same CS116 test equipment used for calibration plus the additional items. Locate the probes at the 5 cm spacing. Locate the monitor probe closer if EUT connector/backshell is 5 cm).

Once the EUT is operating correctly, increase the transient generator amplitude until the test current is flowing but don’t exceed the calibration drive level for that test frequency.
Once the current is attained allow the transient to be applied for five minutes at a repetition rate of 1-2 seconds. Note that the waveform during test may not show dampening characteristics of the calibrated wave because the cable parameters can distort the signal. Once the test is accomplished for all test frequencies and cables the test phase is complete. Please remember to capture waveform recordings and measurements of the applied current.
Summary
As with all MIL-STD-461 tests, planning is an essential element and planning includes defining the hardware necessary to accomplish the testing. Make sure you are aware of reporting requirements, so you will capture the necessary information during the test.

 

This article was originally posted in Interference Technology and written by Steve Ferguson, principal consultant at Compliance Direction.

 

On April 12, 2019, the FCC released 653005 D01 76-81 GHz Radars v01r01,  replacing 653005 D01 76-81 GHz Radars v01 with changes as follows:

  • Added policy limitation regarding automotive in-cabin radar usage in Section 2
  • Updated transition deadlines in Section 3
  • Clarified that the radiated “peak” power limit applies to power spectral density in Section 4
  • Expanded guidance in Section 4 to include occupied bandwidth (OBW) and unwanted emissions measurements

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. with any questions or testing inquiries. 703.689.0368 or sales@hfytxx.com

 

We provide MIL-STD-461 testing / sales@hfytxx.com

Reviewed in this article are RE01 and RE102, with updates found in MIL-STD-461-G, the current version.  These tests quantify undesired signals being radiated into the air from a device and the associated cables. If unchecked, these signals couple onto other equipment cables or may enter into the other equipment chassis and onto internal conductors.  The received field has the potential to induce current in other equipment conductors and may cause harmful interference from either field.

Rhein Tech is proud to announce our Recognized Testing Laboratory status for the new Canadian requirements for Wireless Testing Laboratories。   As of March 15, 2019, testing laboratories must be listed here:  in order to perform accepted test results for Canadian RF product approval。 

 

RTL IC

This is a shortened list of the new ETSI standards published during the past month:

  • - (August 2017) - IMT cellular networks; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3。2 of Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 2: CDMA Direct Spread (UTRA FDD) User Equipment (UE)
  • - (August 2017) - Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN); 5 GHz high performance RLAN; Mitigation techniques to enable sharing between RLANs and Road Tolling and Intelligent Transport Systems in the 5 725 MHz to 5 925 MHz band
  • - (August 2017) - Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; E-UTRA, UTRA and GSM/EDGE; Multi-Standard Radio (MSR) Base Station (BS) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) (3GPP TS 37.113 version 13.4.0 Release 13)
  • - (August 2017) - Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; E-UTRA, UTRA and GSM/EDGE; Multi-Standard Radio (MSR) Base Station (BS) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) (3GPP TS 37.113 version 14.2.0 Release 14)
  • - (August 2017) - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Active Antenna System (AAS) Base Station (BS) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) (3GPP TS 37.114 version 13.3.0 Release 13)
  • - (August 2017) - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Active Antenna System (AAS) Base Station (BS) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) (3GPP TS 37。114 version 14。1。0 Release 14)
  • - (September 2017) - Short Range Devices (SRD) using Ultra Wide Band technology (UWB); Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 5: Devices using UWB technology onboard aircraft

 

See for additional information.

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • - (8/4/17) - Amendment 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
  • - (8/4/17) - Amendment 1 - Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Coupling devices for conducted disturbance measurements
  • - (8/4/17) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
  • - (8/4/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 7: Equipment protection by increased safety "e"
  • - (8/9/17) - Transmitting equipment for radiocommunication - Radio-over fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement - Part 1: Radio-over-fibre technologies for antenna measurement
  • - (8/10/17) - Transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - EMC requirements
  • - (8/23/17) - Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure
  • - (8/23/17) - Interpretation Sheet 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-15: Testing and measurement techniques - Flickermeter - Functional and design specifications
  • - (8/24/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 18: Equipment protection by encapsulation "m"
  • - (8/25/17) - Metallic cables and other passive components test methods - Part 4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Surface transfer impedance - line injection method
  • - (8/31/17) - Metallic cables and other passive components test methods - Part 4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Surface transfer impedance - line injection method
  • - (8/25/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 46: Equipment assemblies
  • - (9/1/17) - Environmental testing - Part 2-52: Tests - Test Kb: Salt mist, cyclic (sodium chloride solution)
  • - (9/8/17) - Reference conditions and procedures for testing industrial and process measurement transmitters - Part 1: General procedures for all types of transmitters

 

See for additional information。

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • - (8/4/17) - Amendment 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
  • - (8/4/17) - Amendment 1 - Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus - Coupling devices for conducted disturbance measurements
  • - (8/4/17) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test
  • - (8/4/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 7: Equipment protection by increased safety "e"
  • - (8/9/17) - Transmitting equipment for radiocommunication - Radio-over fibre technologies for electromagnetic-field measurement - Part 1: Radio-over-fibre technologies for antenna measurement
  • - (8/10/17) - Transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - EMC requirements
  • - (8/23/17) - Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure
  • - (8/23/17) - Interpretation Sheet 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-15: Testing and measurement techniques - Flickermeter - Functional and design specifications
  • - (8/24/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 18: Equipment protection by encapsulation "m"
  • - (8/25/17) - Metallic cables and other passive components test methods - Part 4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Surface transfer impedance - line injection method
  • - (8/31/17) - Metallic cables and other passive components test methods - Part 4-6: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Surface transfer impedance - line injection method
  • - (8/25/17) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 46: Equipment assemblies
  • - (9/1/17) - Environmental testing - Part 2-52: Tests - Test Kb: Salt mist, cyclic (sodium chloride solution)
  • - (9/8/17) - Reference conditions and procedures for testing industrial and process measurement transmitters - Part 1: General procedures for all types of transmitters

 

See for additional information.

Recently we were informed that Rwandan authority RURA will implement new type approval regulations within the next few months. We anticipate increased Type Approval fees and a new sample requirement for the following devices:

 

  • Telephone/Cell Phone
  • Tablets
  • Laptops
  • Keyless Entry
  • Handheld Equipment

Argentina ENACOM released the new Q2-60-14 v17.1 Standard for Low Power Devices, incorporating the latest resolutions and changes as summarized below:

  • Maximum output power of 401-406 MHz band: 18。260 μV/m @ 3m
  • Maximum output power of 433.075-434.775 MHz band: 366000 μV/m @ 3m
  • Addition of UWB bands (3100-10600 MHz)
  • Correction of limits of 22 GHz bands: 22000-26650 MHz

This replaces version 16。1。 Some of the devices this applies to are:

  • Alarms and motion detectors
  • Closed-Circuit Televisions
  • Industrial Control Devices
  • Access Controls
  • Wireless Audio Devices
  • RFID
  • Transportation Telematics Equipment
  • Telemetry Systems

 

Below is the updated frequency bands and electric field table:

On August 15, 2017 Cayman Islands Regulator, Utility Regulation and Competition Office (OfReg), implemented a new Type Approval process effective immediately with primary changes as follows:

  • Online submission format
  • Type Approval fees added

The following previous requirements are still in effect:

  • Certification Marks on packaging and/or equipment are not required by OfReg
  • Type Approval Certificates are valid for 10 years

 

These changes do not impact devices already approved, and all Type Approval applications submitted before August 15, 2017 are being processed under the former procedure; it is not necessary to re-submit these applications, and the new approval fees will not apply.

The Telecommunications Certification Body Council (TCBC) will host its Fall 2017 Workshop October 30 - November 2, 2017 at the Baltimore Marriott Inner Harbor at Camden Yards in Baltimore, Maryland. This 4-day event includes the customary 3-day workshop from Tuesday, October 31 – Thursday, November 2, with Monday, October 30 devoted to SAR Basics training, to provide a foundation for RF Exposure issues in the FCC/ISED requirements.

Among other topics, the workshop will include FCC, ISED Canada, and SAR updates, roundtable discussions, etc。 Full details can be found 。

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