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When it comes to product design, there are many more considerations required than the way the product looks and functions。 Engineers must consider electromagnetic interference, both to and from other devices; conformity to applicable standards; cost-effectiveness; and, of course, product safety。 According to the United States Department of Labor, most electrical accidents are caused by unsafe equipment, installation, environment, and work practices。 Workers and consumers often suffer from electric shock, exposure to arc-flash and arc-blast, and exposure to excessive light and sound energies。 The last thing any product manufacturer or designer wants (or needs) is a legal battle between himself and an injured consumer—and, thankfully, most electrical injuries can be avoided。 Yet, often, product designers fail to consider a product’s electrical dangers during the design process, and this is the most critical moment to consider such thoughts。

Assuming that a product is electrically safe for consumers to use is irresponsible and dangerous, and waiting until product testing to learn if your product is safe is simply a waste of time。 As with EMC testing, electrical safety testing can be cumbersome if your product fails。 Rather than waiting to see if your product passes electrical safety testing, engineers should consider electrical safety during the design cycle to reduce the amount of time and money spent as well as the chance of consumer injury。 Here, we’ll discuss our top tips on how to design for electrical safety。

ISED Publishes CPC-2-1-28, Issue 2

Posted on December 27th 2019 by

This month, ISED published CPC-2-1-28, Issue 2, , which supersedes Issue 1, Voluntary Licensing of Licence-Exempt Low-Power Radio Apparatus in the TV Bands (2015). 

In March of 2019, ISED released SMSE-003-19, , in order to update the regulatory framework regarding wireless microphones. Additional spectrum for wireless microphone use and new licensing eligibility requirements were presented, and as a result, the moratorium on licensing of wireless microphones was lifted in the TV broadcasting bands (54-72 MHz76-88 MHz174-216 MHz, and 470-608 MHz) as well as a portion of the 600 MHz band, specifically from 657-663 MHz.

Under this new issue, the following frequency bands for use by wireless microphones and the maximum bandwidth and power allowed for the operation of these devices are certified under RSS-210:

 

Table 1: Frequency bands for wireless microphones certified under RSS-210
Frequency band
(MHz)
Transmit e.i.r.p.
(mW)
Maximum bandwidth
(kHz)
VHF TV Band
54-72, 76-88, 174-216
50 200
UHF TV Band
470-608
250 200
600 MHz Band
614-616, 653-663
20 200

Table courtesy of ISED

 

You can view for more information. 

Top 3 EMC Design Challenges for IoT Devices

Posted on December 24th 2019 by

The Internet of Things—a newly realized vision of our world in which electronic devices interact with one another—is really not so new of a concept. In 1989, the first IoT device was engineered by John Romkey. In response to a dare, Romkey designed a smart toaster that connected to the internet using TC/IP networking, a toaster that could control the temperature of your toast and, in a later model, insert and extract your bread for you using a robotic crane. An impractical yet remarkable invention, the smart toaster was the first in a line of creations that would pave the way to the IoT ecosystem of the 21st century and beyond.

But designing IoT devices isn’t as easy as connecting previous products to the internet. The IoT ecosystem is delicate and vulnerable to cyberattacks. In addition, designing the products themselves comes with three key challenges.

Testing electrical and electronic devices for EMC compliance can be a daunting task. With few local testing labs available, companies will often have to travel to find a certified testing lab that is equipped to assess their specific product. And due to the lack of available labs, companies often have to book testing sessions in advance and follow an unforgiving, strict schedule. The thought of EMC testing gives engineers a headache, but the thought of failing testing and having to repeat the process a second or third time is even more frustrating. For medical device engineers, whose standards are much stricter than other device standards, testing for EMC compliance is a bit of a nightmare. There is, however, a way to speed up the process of EMC testing while keeping costs low: prescreening devices for EMC compliance.

On December 12, 2019, the FCC proposed several revisions to the rules regarding the 3.1 – 3.55 GHz band, including the relocation of incumbent non-federal users and the removal of existing non-federal secondary radiolocation and amateur allocations in this band. These revisions would pave the way for the progression of 5G by making this spectrum available for advanced commercial services as well as its current users. 

斗地主达人On March 18, 2018, Elaine Herzberg pushed her bike across Mill Avenue in Tempe, Arizona. At ten o'clock at night, it would have been difficult for a driver to see someone cross the street, especially outside of a crosswalk. It wasn’t a driver, however, who hit the young woman. It was an autonomous vehicle.

Uber began testing its autonomous vehicles in Arizona back in 2016。 After Herzberg’s death—the very first pedestrian death caused by an autonomous vehicle—Uber suspended its testing in the state。 While proponents of the autonomous vehicle argue that these cars are much safer than conventional cars, which are subject to human error, critics point out that AI is flawed as well。 And because computers cannot “think on their feet” unless specifically programmed to analyze and account for millions of possible scenarios, they are often less safe。

On December 4, 2019, the FCC released a notice regarding a report and order as well as proposed rulemaking on RF exposure limits. In this notice, the FCC also declines requests to increase/decrease existing RF exposure limits as well as a petition to treat the outer ears separately from other extremities in regard to RF exposure limits. In this notice, the FCC performs the following: 

  • Revises implementing rules to reflect modern technology. 
  • Updates existing criteria for determining when a licensee is exempt from RF exposure evaluation criteria. 
  • Provides more flexibility for licensees to establish compliance with RF exposure limits. 
  • Provides methods that RF equipment operators can use to mitigate the risk of excess exposure. 
  • Proposes an additional limit for localized RF exposure. 
  • Proposes methodologies for compliance for portable devices operating at high GHz frequencies and an extension to THz frequencies as well.
  • Proposes the acceptance of WPT equipment under Parts 15 and 18. 

The European Union’s Radio Equipment Directive (RED), which delineates essential requirements for all radio equipment marketed in the EU, was revised in 2014 to adapt to technological changes propelled by IoT. The directive was revised to include all receivers, all equipment that transmitted and received data, such as kitchen appliances that could receive data from mobile phones. Despite providing clarity on technical jargon and the role of Notified Bodies, the 2014/53/EU (RED) does not clearly discuss product and software security. Here’s what you need to know about the security of products that fall under the 2014/53/EU (RED).

On October 30, 2019, Army, Navy, and Air Force representatives gathered at the Association of Old Crows Conference to discuss the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) and its potential as a separate domain of warfare. While some consider it unnecessary to label the EMS as a separate domain, officials agree that the United States is lagging behind China and Russia in this aspect of war.   

Last week, the Department of Defense (DoD) published a letter to the FCC, urging chair members to reject Ligado Network's proposal to build a wireless communication system that, according to two very different perspectives, could harm or help the United States。 Ligado Networks, formerly known as LightSquared, has awaited the FCC's decision for nearly ten years now, but the proposal is still on hold。 

The Australian government recently released a draft Code of Practice, , which will be open for comment until March 1, 2020. The Code of Practice, which covers all IoT devices available in Australia, is designed to address the following:

  • Default and Weak Passwords
  • Vulnerability 
  • Secure Software Updates
  • Secure Credential Storage 
  • Protection of Personal Data 
  • Exposed Attack Surfaces
  • Communication Security 
  • Software Integrity
  • Resiliency of Systems to Outages 
  • System Telemetry Data 
  • Personal Data Deletion 
  • Device Installation and Maintenance 
  • Input Data 

Australia isn't the only one concerned about the robustness of IoT devices, however, as both the United States and the EU have begun taking action to strengthen IoT device security.  

The race to 5G began not long ago, and it seems that China and America are leading the race neck-in-neck. In early November, China launched the largest 5G network on the globe, with companies Huawei and ZTE offering 5G-compatible phones to users around the world. New reports from Strategy Analytics, however, indicate that Apple will lead the race to 5G by the end of 2020 with a new line of 5G-compatible phones. According to these reports, Apple will account for nearly 50% of all 5G smartphone sales by the end of next year.   

斗地主达人In the age of IoT and AI, many are now wondering if the standards that govern innovative industries, such as the technology and medical device industries, are stifling innovation. According to a 2017 study, , in markets with both low and high uncertainty, businesses that experience problems with standards have to spend a larger amount of resources to be innovative. Many manufacturers, however, don't end up marketing their products because they cannot pass compliance with regulatory bodies and do not possess the resources to re-test and redesign products. This poses a significant threat to the global economy as well as to technological evolution.      

In the past several years, many changes have been made to the regulations and rules governing the medical device industry—and there are still more to come。

While regulatory changes are not entirely worrisome to larger manufacturing companies, smaller companies who have fewer funds and resources often find it difficult to adapt to regulatory changes。 As new and revised regulatory standards loom before us, it is in these smaller companies’ best interests to prepare for the coming changes。

On October 29, 2019, the FCC released draft as part of a "permit-but-disclose" proceeding。 This document would ensure the following: 

  • Prohibit the use of USF funds to purchase equipment from a company that poses a national security threat to the U.S communications network (known as covered companies). 
  • Designate Huawei Technologies Company and ZTE Corporation as covered companies.
  • Require USF recipients to remove existing equipment bought from covered companies. 
  • Require ETCs to remove covered equipment in the event that they will be reimbursed.  
  • Analyze ETCs' current possession of covered equipment and deduce the costs to remove such equipment. 

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