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Switching-Mode Power Supply斗地主达人 Switching-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) are used extensively in many electronic applications. Many manufacturers offer MIL-STD-461 compliant solutions, as well as Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions for military applications. SMPS offer many advantages when compared to Linear Power Supplies. The primary advantage of an SMPS is that it offers power conversion and regulation at 100% efficiency – albeit, given ideal components. All power loss is due to less than ideal components and the power loss in the control circuitry. Other advantages of the SMPS are smaller size and therefore less weight. SMPS have switching frequencies that range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.

Cuba - MINCOM Activities

Posted on October 22nd 2016 by

Cuba's MINCOM (MINISTERIO DE COMUNICACIÒN ) recently took over MIC as RF and telecom authority since February 23, 2013 due to reorganization. MINCOM continues to process type approval. According to RESOLUTION No。 137/2003, RESOLUTION No。 127/ 2011 and RESOLUCIÓN No。 156 / 2011, it is mandatory to apply for MINCOM type approval for wireless devices which use radio spectrum。 The testing sample and local testing are required。

Mexico - New Standard Published

Posted on October 22nd 2016 by
Mexico NOM-208 Standard
On September 13, 2016 Mexico's Approval Authority published NOM-208-SCFI-2016  in the official Gazette in Mexico City for comments that must be submitted by 60 calendar days from that date.  Full implementation is expected in January 2017.  This standard will replace both NOM-121-SCT1-1999 (NOM 121) and its successor NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015. (NOM-016) This in effect sets the Wifi and BT and SRD standards for the following bands: 902-928 MHz, 2400-2483.5 MHz y 5725-5850 MHz.  Please note that RFID in the 900 MHz range is subject to the traditional process, not the testing process.
 
This does not set up a new testing procedure but instead refers back to Disposición Técnica IFT-008-2015 that was passed by IFETEL in 2015 and which was implemented under NOM-EM-016. Therefore, there will be no expected changes in testing compared to the protocols in use at this time. The new standard does not invalidate the certifications completed under NOM 121 nor NOM-EM-016.  Certificates completed under those two previous standards that are marked “Definitivo” will continue their validity permanently.  Further, none of these certificates will be subject to audit.  However, the NOM-121 and NOM-016 certificates cannot be modified to include additional similar products.  Please note that certifications completed under NOM-016 that are marked, “Provisional” will expire on their normal one-year anniversary date.  These certificates cannot be renewed and will have to be re-certified.
 
Since NOM 208 is not yet in effect. IFETEL has granted NYCE the right to homologation products for one year using the Disposición Técnica IFT-008-2015.  We are not yet certain what will happen after NOM 208 is fully implemented, but expect to return to the procedure where we first test, obtain a certificate of conformity for a certification body authorized by the Secretary of the Economy, and then also seek a certificate of homologation from IFETEL.

On September 30, 2016, MSIP released a notification stating 5650-5725MHz is opened for Wireless Access System and 5825-5850MHz is opened for Wireless Data Communication system in Korea.

So 5150-5350MHz, 5470-5725MHz and 5725-5850MHz are allowed for WLAN use now. In 5470-5725MHz, maximum bandwidth of 160MHz can be applied.

Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
We have a module that does not include a RF shield, however we meet the standalone requirement for a module with a RF shield. Can we qualify for FCC certification as a standalone module?
 
Our reply to this question is: No, you cannot.

To qualify as a standalone module, the RF (radio frequency) circuitry must be shielded, even if the module meets the limits in a standalone configuration without it. The RF section of the module must be shielded to help prevent RF coupling when the module is installed in a host, so it’s not enough for it to meet only the limits of the standalone configuration.

The shielding design must fully enfold all the RF circuitry, including the top, all sides, and the bottom, which may be a shielding ground plane. The shielding must be made of sheet metal, metal mesh, or a metallic ink-coated material expressly designed as an effective shield. Any holes in the shield must be significantly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation that is being blocked, to effectively approximate an unbroken conducting surface.

The other module circuitry, i.e. flash memory, temperature sensor, input voltage regulators, input data buffering circuits, etc. may not be RF circuitry, and therefore do not need to be shielded. However, the onus is on the grantee to employ sound engineering judgment to reduce/eliminate any possible RF coupling that might affect a host interface.

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ hfytxx.com

On August 2, 2016, Argentina's ENACOM issued Resolution No. 6038/2016 with new testing standard for Low Power Devices. The concept of module is accepted to test on low power device which ease the transportation, handling and laboratory operation of the integrated transmitters on computers. Also one radiated sample instead of three is needed for testing in the most of cases.
 
ENACOM only accepts the test reports issued under previous technical standard CNC-Q2-60.14 V12.1 for certification within 180 days after the publication date of this new standard.

This is a shortened list of the CENELEC standards published or made available during the past month:

  •  - (9/2/16) - Hollow metallic waveguides - Part 1: General requirements and measuring methods
  • - (9/2/16) - Methods of measurement of touch current and protective conductor current
  • - (9/2/16) - Electroacoustics - Measurement microphones - Part 3: Primary method for free-field calibration of laboratory standard microphones by the reciprocity technique
  • - (9/2/16) - Electroacoustics - Measurement microphones - Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working standard microphones by comparison
  •  - (9/9/16) - Electronic railway equipment - On board driving data recording system - Part 2: Conformity testing
  • - (9/11/16) - AC and/or DC-supplied electronic control gear for tubular fluorescent lamps - Performance requirements
  • - (9/16/16) - Communication cables - Specifications for test methods - Part 4-16: Environmental test methods - Circuit integrity under fire conditions
  •  - (9/16/16) - Communication cables - Part 2-29: Common design rules and construction - Crosslinked polyethylene insulation compounds: instrumentation, control and field bus cables
  • - (9/16/16) - Fixed capacitors for use in electronic equipment - Part 18: Sectional specification - Fixed aluminium electrolytic surface mount capacitors with solid (MnO2) and non-solid electrolyte
  • - (9/16/16) - Electrostatics - Part 4-9: Standard test methods for specific applications - Garments
  •  - (9/16/16) - Industrial communication networks - Wireless communication network and communication profiles - WirelessHART™
  •  - (9/16/16) - Electric welding equipment - Assessment of restrictions related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) - Part 2: Arc welding equipment
  • - (9/23/16) - Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Interpretations related to European Standards in the EN 60335 series
  • - (9/23/16) - Switches for household and similar fixed electrical installations - Part 2-5: Particular requirements - Switches and related accessories for use in home and building electronic systems (HBES)
  • - (9/23/16) - Switches for appliances - Part 1-2: Requirements for electronic switches

See for additional information。

This is a shortened list of the new ETSI standards published during the past month:

  •  - 2016-08 - Land Mobile Service; Radio equipment with an internal or external RF connector intended primarily for analogue speech; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-08 - Land Mobile Service; Radio equipment intended for the transmission of data (and/or speech) using constant or non-constant envelope modulation and having an antenna connector; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-08 - Land Mobile Service; Radio equipment transmitting signals to initiate a specific response in the receiver; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-08 - Maritime Personal Homing Beacon intended for use on the frequency 121,5 MHz for search and rescue purposes only; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-08 - Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Satellite broadcast reception equipment; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 1: Outdoor unit receiving in the 10,7 GHz to 12,75 GHz frequency band
  •  - 2016-09 - Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Harmonised Standard for Mobile Earth Stations (MES) operating in the 1 980 MHz to 2 010 MHz (earth-to-space) and 2 170 MHz to 2 200 MHz (space-to-earth) frequency bands covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 1: Complementary Ground Component (CGC) for wideband systems
  •  - 2016-09 - Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Harmonised Standard for Mobile Earth Stations (MES) operating in the 1 980 MHz to 2 010 MHz (earth-to-space) and 2 170 MHz to 2 200 MHz (space-to-earth) frequency bands covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Part 2: User Equipment (UE) for wideband systems
  •  - 2016-09 - Integrated broadband cable telecommunication networks (CABLE); Characteristics of Evolving Electromagnetic Environment with ECN800 parameters and Cable Network Equipment
  •  - 2016-09 - Wireless Microphones; Audio PMSE up to 3 GHz; Part 1: Class A Receivers; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-09 - VHF air-ground Digital Link (VDL) Mode 4 radio equipment; Technical characteristics and methods of measurement for ground-based equipment; Part 5: Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-09 - Transport and Traffic Telematics (TTT); Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) transmission equipment (500 kbit/s / 250 kbit/s) operating in the 5 795 MHz to 5 815 MHz frequency band; Part 2: Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU; Sub-part 1: Road Side Units (RSU)
  •  - 2016-09 - Wireless Video Links operating in the 1,3 GHz to 50 GHz frequency band; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-09 - VHF air-ground Digital Link (VDL) Mode 2; Technical characteristics and methods of measurement for ground-based equipment; Part 3: Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-09 - Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU
  •  - 2016-09 - Network Based Short Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 870 MHz to 876 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW; Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the Directive 2014/53/EU

斗地主达人See for additional information。

Recently, our lab was asked about the FCC frequency stability requirements for 902 - 928 MHz wireless transmitters.  We advised our client that transmitters that operate within the 902 - 928 MHz band are subject to FCC . The wireless transmitter carrier’s 20 dB bandwidth must be within the 902 - 928 MHz frequency band where operation is permitted under all conditions including modulation, frequency sweeping, hopping and stability, the frequency tolerance of the carrier, and over variation in temperature.

The frequency accuracy of your wireless transmitter carrier’s signal must be within ±0。001% of the operating frequency over a temperature variation of −20 degrees to +50 degrees C at normal supply voltage, as well as for variation in the primary supply voltage from 85% to 115% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20 degrees C。 If your wireless transmitter is battery operated, it must be tested using a new battery。

 

斗地主达人Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ hfytxx.com

Canada's Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) recently issued a public notice with details on the transition period from Issue 8 to Issue 9 of RSS-210 Licence-Exempt Radio Apparatus: Category I Equipment. Though geared toward the certified bodies (CBs), it is informative to all that seek certification under RSS-210, and is provided below.

This is to inform you the following certification procedure will apply with regards to transition period for RSS-210 issue 9:

  1. If a certificate has been issued to RSS-210 issue 8 before the date of publication of RSS-210 issue 9, nothing needs to be changed and it can be submitted as is to ISED via the Spectraweb application;
  2. If a certificate has not been issued before the date of publication of RSS-210 issue 9, ISED will continue to accept test reports compliant with RSS-210 Issue 8 until February 26, 2017 and in such cases, the CB shall issue certificates showing RSS-210 Issue 8 compliance. After February 26, 2017, CBs shall issue certificates showing RSS-210 Issue 9 compliance and test reports may continue to be in compliance with RSS-210 Issue 8 until August 26, 2017, only if:
    1. it is supplemented with a partial test report covering any missing requirements from RSS-210 Issue 9; or
    2. it includes an attestation signed by the applicant, lab or CB indicating that the report covers all requirements in RSS-210 Issue 9.
  3. After August 26, 2017, all test reports must be compliant with RSS-210 Issue 9.

 

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. for any questions and/or testing requirements. 703. 689. 0368 or email sales @ hfytxx.com.

The (RED) 2014/53/EU becomes mandatory as of June 13, 2017. Products placed on the EU market as of that date must comply with the RED; the R&TTE Directive will no longer be valid.

When a manufacturer assesses compliance of radio equipment under the essential requirements of RED Articles 3。2 and 3。3 and harmonized standards are (1) applied only in part, (2) available but not applied, or (3) are not available, then it is mandatory for that manufacturer to use a Notified Body (NB), per RED Article 17。4。

斗地主达人The standard will not be ready in time to be placed in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU) as a harmonized standard for the RED, therefore manufacturers will be required to use a NB for the type of equipment falling under this standard, including Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) and 5 GHz high performance RLANs, until the document is finalized and becomes a harmonized standard, which may create a high demand for NB involvement in the meantime.

 
To find out more, please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. at sales @ hfytxx.com or call us at 703.689. 0368.
 
Recently, Kenya’s Communications Authority issued a new regulation regarding the use of Short Range Devices (SRDs); SRDs operating in the permitted frequency bands are now exempt from Type Approval and may be freely imported and sold in Kenya. This includes, but is not limited to, SRDs operating at 13.56 MHz, 433-435 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands such as NFC tag/card readers, keyless car entry systems, wireless access points, wireless LAN modules, etc. Please note that these SRDs must comply with the maximum permitted output powers specified for each band which currently aligns with the EU regulations.
Please contact Rhein Tech directly if you have additional questions or require testing and certification assistance. 703.689.0368
 
 
Our test lab had a customer inquiry this week and the question was as follows:
Does the FCC allow us to certify equipment that was initially verified? And what exactly are the differences between a verification, a certification, and a declaration of conformity (DoC)?
 
Our reply to this question is: No, you cannot.

The FCC does not allow certification for a device that is subject to verification. The difference between a verification, certification and DoC are as follows:

  • Verification - is a procedure where the manufacturer makes measurements or takes the necessary steps to insure that the equipment complies with the appropriate technical standards.  Verification attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the manufacturer or importer which are identical as defined in 47CF§2.908 to the sample tested and found acceptable by the manufacturer.  Products subject to verification are typically intended for industrial and/or commercial use.
  • Certification - is an equipment authorization issued by, or on behalf of, the FCC based on representations and test data submitted by an applicant.
  • Declaration of Conformity -  is a procedure where the responsible party as defined in 47CFR§2.909 makes measurements or takes other necessary steps to insure that the equipment complies with the appropriate technical standards.  The DoC attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are identical, as defined in 47CFR§2.908, to the sample tested and found acceptable by the responsible party.  Products subject to DoC are typically intended for consumer use. 

Please feel free to contact Rhein Tech with any questions you may have at 703 689 0368 or sales@ rheintech。com

On August 8, 2016, Russia’s State Committee on Radiofrequencies (GKRCH) published new guidelines for RFC (Radio Frequency Centre) conclusions. RFC conclusions are required for obtaining import licenses for radio devices such as RFID (866-868 MHz) SRDs, automotive radars (76-77 GHz), DECT devices (1880-1900 MHz) and more.

In the past, GKRCH reports issued by an accredited lab were accepted, and obtaining the RFC conclusion was a paperwork process only. The new guidelines imply that only test reports issued by Russia’s RFC will be accepted, and in-country testing is therefore required.

Please contact Rhein Tech if you have any questions or testing requirements. 703.689.0368

On August 26, 2016, modifications to the Mexican foreign trade rules and criteria were published in the , regarding all devices approved under the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 and previous NOM-121-SCT12009 standards pertaining to devices operating in the following bands: 2400-2483.5 MHz, 5725-5850 MHz and 902-928 MHz.

斗地主达人The new Mexican foreign trade requirements call for the mandatory presentation of Certificates of Conformity (NYCE certificates) issued under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015 at Mexican Customs for all devices operating on the frequency bands specified above. Because of this, there is a risk that any Certificates of Conformity issued under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) will not be accepted by Customs.

In conflict, IFT technical provision IFT-008-2016 states that all Certificates obtained under the previous standard (NOM-121-SCT1-2009) would remain valid with no need to re-certify under NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015。 Because of this confusion, Mexican Secretaria de Economía (SE) issued a notification on August 29, 2016 stating that any Certificates of Conformity or IFT Approval Certificates issued under the previous NOM-121-SCT1 2009 standard must be accepted at Customs and fulfil the requirements stated in the current NOM-EM-016-SCFI-2015。

Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a copy of the SE’s August 29, 2016 notification at Mexican Customs for all devices in order to prove compliance and ensure Customs delays are not incurred due to this confusion。

Please contact Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. for any questions and/or testing requirements. 703. 689. 0368 or email sales @ hfytxx.com.

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