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MultiPoint Newsletter - May 2011 Issue

Dear Colleague,

We have provided typical questions and answers that represent in most cases technical opinions with justification in FCC and CE requirements. The particulars of the product for certification must be considered with respect to the applicability of these questions and answers. We hope you find our update valuable and welcome your feedback if you have any special needs or questions. Call us at 703.689.0368 for your testing requirements. You can view archived issues of MultiPoint at our website.


FCC SAR Test Procedure for PTT

Question: We manufacture a push-to-talk (PTT) radio with several interchangeable antennas. What is the FCC’s Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) occupational test procedure for these types of radios?

Answer: The FCC is currently developing a final version of test procedures for publication, but in the meantime has provided 643646 D01 SAR Test for PTT Radios v01r01 as a test reduction guidance document for occupational PTT radios. The referenced document provides detailed guidance on the following:

  1. Head SAR testing considerations relating to PTT radio, without audio accessories.
    • SAR testing of antennas with the default battery.
    • SAR testing of antennas with additional batteries.
  2. Body SAR testing considerations for body-worn device accessories.
    • SAR testing of antennas with the default battery and body-worn accessory.
    • SAR testing of antennas and default body-worn accessory with additional batteries.
  3. Body SAR testing considerations for audio accessories with integral antenna.
    • The highest SAR testing value for an antenna, body-worn accessory and battery combination tested in the body-worn accessories sequences applicable to an audio accessory is used to determine SAR test requirements for accessories with SAR values =< 4 W/kg, > 4.0 W/kg and ≤ 6.0 W/kg, > 6.0 W/kg, and > 7.0 W/kg.
    • Format for reporting measured body SAR for audio accessories.
  4. General Reporting Procedure

FCC Rules for Smart Antenna System Devices

Question: We manufacture a WiFi base station system that consists of 8 separate transmitters and 8 sectorized antennas. Each transmitter is controlled by an onboard microcontroller that allows only one transmitter at a time to transmit. Information presented in a FCC/TCBC training seminar on Smart Antenna System (SAS) indicated that given that no two transmitters simultaneously transmit, we can measure the power to each antenna element during transmission in a single beam and sum the power across the elements. Or, should we consider this configuration a point-to-multi-point system (PTMP)?

Answer: Your configuration as described is considered a SAS, not a PTMP system. If the transmitters cannot transmit simultaneously but rather only one at a time, it’s likely that this system falls under , that is, a transmitter that employs an antenna system that emits multiple directional beams, but does not do so simultaneously. The FCC’s rule requires power to be measured across all elements of the antenna; the power from one transmitter is summed across all antenna elements.

斗地主达人On the other hand, if power is only being applied to one antenna element in a point-to-point (PTP) configuration, you can take advantage of FCC Part 15.247(c)(1)(i) for the 2400-2483.5 MHz frequency band in which the rule allows 1 dB of reduction for every 3 dBi of gain over 6 dBi antenna gain.

For SAS, your system must adhere to the following under FCC Part 15。247(c)(2)(i) and (ii):

  1. The WiFi system must operate only in the 2400 MHz frequency band.
  2. Multiple beams are used to direct traffic to individual subscribers.
  3. Different traffic information must be transmitted to each receiver (occasional broadcast management packets are not considered as traffic).
  4. It must not emit multiple directional beams simultaneously; if the system transmits simultaneously, then overlap areas and total power are limited.

In addition to the provisions in FCC Part 15.247(b)(1), (b)(3), (b)(4) and (c)(1)(i), transmitters operating in the 2400-2483.5 MHz band that emit multiple directional beams simultaneously or sequentially for the purpose of directing signals to individual receivers or to groups of receivers, must have emissions that comply with the following:

  • The total output power conducted to the array or arrays that comprise the device, (i.e. the sum of the power supplied to all antennas, antenna elements, staves, etc. and summed across all carriers or frequency channels), shall not exceed the limit specified in FCC Part 15.247(b)(1) or (b)(3), as applicable. However, for each 3 dB that the directional gain of the antenna/antenna array exceeds 6 dBi, the total conducted output power shall be reduced by 1 dB below the specified limits.

FCC Test Procedures for Television Band Devices

Question: What is a Television Band Device (TVBD), and has the FCC developed a test procedure for it?

Answer: A TVBD, also known as a White Space Device, is unlicensed and designed to operate on unoccupied channels within the television broadcast bands as authorized under FCC Part 15 Subpart H. Per , a TVBD operates on available TV channels in the broadcast television frequency bands at 54–60 MHz (TV channel 2), 76–88 MHz (TV channels 5 and 6), 174–216 MHz (TV channels 7–13), 470–608 MHz (TV channels 14–36) and 614–698 MHz (TV channels 38–51). The FCC rules and regulations for TVBD devices require implementation of an interference-avoidance methodology to determine available channels for operation that includes geo-location capability; an approved FCC database access to determine the TV channel availability at a TVBD’s location; and spectrum sensing, a personal/portable TVBD using spectrum sensing to determine a list of available channels. Sensing-only devices may transmit on any available channels in the frequency bands 512–608 MHz (TV channels 21–36) and 614–698 MHz (TV channels 38–51).

The first generation of TVBDs is expected to implement geo-location and database access methods that require a geo-location capability such as GPS. These TVBDs will also require access via Internet connection to a database of records depicting location and other technical information relative to licensed stations operating within proximity of the TVBD’s reported geographic coordinates.

斗地主达人The general technical requirements for TVBDs are contained in .

The FCC has published 416721 D01 White Space Test Procedures v01, a test procedure for TVBDs. One final point about TVBDs is that they currently appear on the FCC’s TCB exclusion list and therefore must be certified by the FCC and not a TCB.


FCC Guidance on ERP and EIRP

Question: How is the peak output power calculated from the field strength, in order to determine ERP (Effective Radiated Power) or EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)?

Answer: This The peak output power of any device can be calculated from the measured peak field strength, if the gain of the EUT’s radiating element is known, using the following equation:

Equation 1

where P = power in watts, E = measured peak field strength in volts/meter, d = distance in meters at which the measurement was made, G = numeric gain of the radiating element

If you do not know the gain of the radiating element, you can still calculate either the ERP or the EIRP from the measured peak field strength, by using either G = 1.64 or G = 1 respectively, in the above equation. You can review the FCC’s guidance on this issue in publication 斗地主达人412172 D01 Determining ERP and EIRP v0, for further clarification.


Standards Updates

EU: NEW CENELEC STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

This is a shortened list of the CENELEC standards published during the past month:

  • (4/22/2011) Signaling on low-voltage electrical installations in the frequency range 3 kHz to 148,5 kHz - Part 1: General requirements, frequency bands and electromagnetic disturbances
  • (4/22/2011) Connectors for electronic equipment - Tests and measurements - Part 26-100: Measurement setup, test and reference arrangements and measurements for connectors according to IEC 60603-7 - Tests 26a to 26g
  • (4/22/2011) Safety in electroheat installations - Part 6: Specifications for safety in industrial microwave heating equipment
  • (4/29/2011) Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-21: Testing and measurement techniques - Reverberation chamber test methods
  • (5/06/2011) Electric cables - Low voltage energy cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V (U0/U) - Part 1: General requirements
  • (5/06/2011) Safety of laser products - Part 4: Laser guards
  • (5/13/2011) Electrical and electronic household and office equipment - Measurement of low power consumption
  • (5/13/2011) Radio-frequency connectors - Part 39: Sectional specification for CQM series quick lock RF connectors
  • (5/13/2011) Radio-frequency connectors - Part 40: Sectional specification for 2.4 series RF connectors
  • (5/13/2011) Fluorescent induction lamps - Safety specifications

See for additional information.

EU: NEW IEC STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • (4/20/2011) Medical electrical equipment - ALL PARTS
  • (4/21/2011) EMC IC modeling - Part 1: General modeling framework
  • (4/21/2011) Fuel cell technologies - Part 6-150: Micro fuel cell power systems - Safety - Water reactive (UN Devision 4.3) compounds in indirect PEM fuel cells
  • (4/21/2011) Corrigendum 2 - Household and similar electrical appliances - Safety - Part 1: General requirements
  • (5/11/2011) Corrigendum 1 - Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use - Part 1: General requirements
  • (5/11/2011) Corrigendum 1 - Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use - Part 2-030: Particular requirements for testing and measuring circuits
  • (5/11/2011) Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-16: Testing and measurement techniques - Test for immunity to conducted, common mode disturbances in the frequency range 0 Hz to 150 kHz
  • (5/12/2011) Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-12: Limits - Limits for harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current >16 A and ≤ 75 A per phase

See for additional information。

EU: NEW ETSI STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

斗地主达人This is a shortened list of the new ETSI standards published during the past month:

  • (May 2011) IMT cellular networks; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive; Part 1: Introduction and common requirements
  • (May 2011) IMT cellular networks; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive; Part 13: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) User Equipment (UE)
  • (May 2011) IMT cellular networks; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive; Part 14: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Base Stations (BS)
  • (May 2011) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Portable Very High Frequency (VHF) radiotelephone equipment for the maritime mobile service operating in the VHF bands with integrated handheld class D DSC; Part 1: Technical characteristics and methods

See for additional information.

US: FCC PUBLIC FORUM ON SMARTPHONE LOCATION BASED SERVICES

On May 17, 2011, the FCC announced that it will hold a Location Based Services (LBS) “public education forum” to which it has invited the wireless carriers, technology companies such as Google and Apple, FTC privacy experts, and consumer advocacy groups. The forum will be held at the FCC headquarters in Washington, DC on June 28, 2011 from 9 am to 3 pm.

The goal of the forum is to explore “how consumers can be both smart and secure” when using the benefits of cutting-edge smartphones that are capable of tracking the user’s exact location multiple times during the course of a day.  Specific forum topics include: how LBS works; benefits and risks of LBS; what consumers should and should not do; industry best practices; and parental child location tracking ().

CANADA: CHANGES TO RSS-170,  ISSUE 2

On May 18th, 2011, Industry Canada released a notice modifying RSS-170 Issue 2, MobileEarth Station and Ancillary Terrestrial Component Equipment Operating in the Mobile-Satellite Service Bands.  Effective immediately, RSS-170 Section 5.4.3.1 has been changed to allow the unwanted emissions limits for mobile earth stations in all frequency bands to be determined related to the equipment’s occupied bandwidth or necessary  bandwidth, whichever is greater. The revised text is shown below:

5.4.3.1 Mobile Earth Stations in All Frequency Bands

The average power of unwanted emissions shall be attenuated below the average output power, P(dBW), of the transmitter, as specified below:

  1. 25 dB in any 4 kHz band, the centre frequency of which is offset from the channel frequency by more than 50%, up to and including 100% of the occupied bandwidth or necessary bandwidth, whichever is greater;
  2. 35 dB in any 4 kHz band, the centre frequency of which is offset from the channel frequency by more than 100%, up to and including 250% of the occupied bandwidth or necessary bandwidth, whichever is greater;
  3. 43 + 10 Log p (watts) in any 4 kHz band, the centre frequency of which is offset from the channel frequency by more than 250% of the occupied bandwidth or necessary bandwidth, whichever is greater.

斗地主达人The above changes will be reflected in a new issue of RSS-170 but are in effect at this time。

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