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MultiPoint Newsletter - October 2012 Issue

Dear Colleague,

We have provided typical questions and answers that represent in most cases technical opinions with justification in FCC, IC and CE requirements. The particulars of the product for certification must be considered with respect to the applicability of these questions and answers. We hope you find our update valuable and welcome your feedback if you have any special needs or questions. Call us at 703.689.0368 for your testing requirements. You can view archived issues of MultiPoint at our website.


Transmitter Power Control & 5 GHz Radios

Question: We are integrating a 5 GHz radio into our mobile device and would like an explanation on how Transmitter Power Control (TPC) works, and the applicable requirements in ETSI EN 301 893.

Answer: Below is a basic overview of TPC, as well as Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS), which go hand in hand. Following this overview are links to articles with additional in-depth information on both topics.

In tandem with DFS, TPC automatically adjusts the transmission power level on 5 GHz RLAN radios, primarily to avoid interfering with radar signals, and to reduce interference in the shared wireless communications spectrum, allowing greater re-use and concurrency of communications in Europe, and also the U。S。, Japan, etc。 In wireless networks, TPC is used as a power control mechanism to reduce energy consumption in mobile devices in order to conserve battery life。

TPC is a requirement for 5 GHz radios intended for distribution in Europe。 These radios must adhere to the R&TTE standard “ETSI EN 301 893 Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN); 5 GHz high performance RLAN; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3。2 of the R&TTE Directive”, V1。7。1, 2012-01。

斗地主达人DFS and TPC enabled radios are expected to automatically set the frequency, and TPC is used to configure the transmission power of the radio based on the region in which it’s being operated, in order to comply with the applicable rules, regulations and standards。 Upon detection of radar signals, the radio is expected to switch its operating frequency to one that will not interfere with the radar systems。 In doing so, TPC ensures a mitigation factor of at least 3 dB on the aggregate power from a large number of devices, and therefore requires the 5 GHz device to have a TPC range in which the lowest value is at least 6 dB below the values for mean E。I。R。P。 given in Table 1 below (the following notes and tables are reproduced from EN 301 893)。

1. For output power and power density at the highest power level:

  • TPC is not required for channels whose nominal bandwidth falls completely within the band 5150 MHz to 5250 MHz.
  • For devices with TPC, the RF output power and the power density when configured to operate at the highest stated power level of the TPC range shall not exceed the levels given in Table 1.
  • Devices are allowed to operate without TPC. See Table 1 for the applicable limits in this case.

Table 1: Mean E.I.R.P. Limits for RF output power and power density at the highest power level

mp-oct-2012-t1

2. RF output power at the lowest power level of the TPC range:

  • For devices using TPC, the RF output power during a transmission burst when configured to operate at the lowest stated power level of the TPC range shall not exceed the levels given in Table 2.
  • For devices without TPC, the limits in Table 2 do not apply.

Table 2: Mean E.I.R.P. limits for RF output power at the lowest power level of the TPC range

mp-oct-2012-t2

Please review the following articles for additional information on TPC and DFS:


Conducted Emissions & Portable Battery-Operated Radio Device

Question: We manufacture a portable battery-operated radio device and are wondering if we have to meet the FCC’s requirement for AC line conducted emissions. Our radio device does not have a charger; it uses disposable AA batteries only.

Answer: FCC states the following:

斗地主达人“Measurements to demonstrate compliance with the conducted limits are not required for devices which only employ battery power for operation and which do not operate from the AC power lines, or contain provisions for operation while connected to the AC power lines。 Devices that include, or make provisions for, the use of battery chargers which permit operating while charging, AC adapters or battery eliminators, or that connect to the AC power lines indirectly, obtaining their power through another device which is connected to the AC power lines, shall be tested to demonstrate compliance with the conducted limits。”

Since your device is battery-powered only, AC line conducted emissions are not required. Please note that the device approval process will be facilitated if you provide your TCB with an attestation that your device is battery-powered only. The installation instructions, user manual and all exhibits must clearly state and demonstrate that your device is battery-powered only using AA batteries, and that AC charging is not available. You may also need to demonstrate that there is voltage regulation to ensure compliance in order to protect manufacturing tolerances of batteries.


Communications Between Wireless Charger & Client

Question: 斗地主达人We manufacture a portable device that uses wireless charging technology. Does the FCC allow communications between the charger and a client?

Answer: The FCC does allow wireless communications between the charger and a client. Depending on load management and communications, authorization could be obtained under Part 15 and/or Part 18. Chargers and clients are approved separately, and should be compliant in both standalone mode and as a system. The Wireless Power Consortium created an interoperable standard for wireless charging called Qi. The interface in the Qi standard guarantees product interoperability for wireless battery charging. In its Byte encoding scheme, it supports very slow communications (about 2 Kbit/s), 8bit data, bi-phase bit-encoding, a start-bit, a parity bit, and a stop-bit, just to name a few. Additional information on the Qi standard is available via this link to a presentation by the Wireless Power Consortium.

The following is the FCC’s consideration for load management and communications:

  • Load management may include client device detection, charging status reporting and control, etc.
  • The primary charging frequency can be used for both charging and load management.
  • The primary charging frequency or a separate frequency may carry the method of communications.
  • Load management can be passive, referred to as load modulation, or active, referred to as primary charging signal modulation.
  • If communications and charging use different frequencies, authorization under different rule parts is required.

FCC Part 18 authorization is required for a wireless charger and client devices per the following:

  • Load and power management must be integral to the device’s wireless charging operation and frequency.
  • The device may not communicate any information not related to power management and control.
  • The proximity between the charger and the client device(s) must satisfy the requirement that the RF energy is locally generated and used.
  • If the device has other forms of communications, these communications are authorized separately under Part 15.

FCC Part 15 authorization is required if:

  • The primary charging frequency includes information not related to power management.
  • A secondary frequency is used for communications; the primary frequency may be authorized under Part 18, and the secondary frequency under Part 15.

Locking to GPS Satellites From Within Anechoic Chamber

Question: We are testing our product with a built-in GPS receiver in our closed-door anechoic chamber. How can we get our GPS device to lock to GPS satellites, and stay locked to the satellites, in our anechoic chamber?

Answer: To enable your GPS device to lock to GPS satellites while it is inside your closed-door anechoic chamber you would need the following equipment:  a GPS variable gain line amplifier, two GPS patch antennas, and two low-loss coaxial cables.

斗地主达人To receive GPS location points inside the anechoic chamber, configure the equipment as follows:

  1. Outside the anechoic chamber, install the GPS variable gain line amplifier and one GPS patch antenna in clear view of the sky.
  2. Connect a low-loss coaxial cable from this GPS patch antenna to the RF input port of the GPS variable gain line amplifier.
  3. Inside the chamber, place your GPS device and install the second GPS patch antenna away from your GPS device.
  4. Connect the second low-loss coaxial cable from the antenna port of the GPS patch antenna installed inside the anechoic chamber through the chamber's “bulkhead” connector to the RF output port of the GPS variable gain line amplifier located outside the chamber.
  5. Once the GPS variable line amplifier is switched on, your GPS device inside the anechoic chamber will be able receive GPS location points.

Standards Updates

EU: NEW CENELEC STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

This is a shortened list of the CENELEC standards published or made available during the past month:

  • - (9/20/2012) - Household and similar electrical appliances - Safety - Part 2-2: Particular requirements for vacuum cleaners and water-suction cleaning appliances
  • - (9/20/2012) - Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity - Part 8: Measurement of radiated immunity - IC stripline method
  • - (9/20/2012) - Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Shipborne equipment for long-range identification and tracking (LRIT) - Performance requirements
  • - (9/20/2012) - Radio frequency (RF) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters of assessed quality - Part 2: Guidelines for the use
  • - (9/20/2012) - Technical documentation for the assessment of electrical and electronic products with respect to the restriction of hazardous substances
  • - (10/4/2012) - Electroacoustics - Methods to determine corrections to obtain the free-field response of a sound level meter
  • - (10/4/2012) - Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and equipment - Part 1: General
  • - (10/18/2012) - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-44: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for computed tomography

See CENELEC for additional information.

EU: NEW ETSI STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

斗地主达人This is a shortened list of the new ETSI standards published during the past month:

  • - (October 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices (SRD); UWB location tracking devices in the railroad environment
  • - (October 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices (SRD) using Ultra Wide Band (UWB) for Location and Tracking railroad applications; RF conformance testing
  • - (October 2012) - Telephony for hearing impaired people; Inductive coupling of telephone earphones to hearing aids; Part 1: Fixed-line speech terminals
  • - (October 2012) - Telephony for hearing impaired people; Inductive coupling of telephone earphones to hearing aids; Part 2: Cellular speech terminals

See ETSI website斗地主达人 for additional information.

EU: NEW IEC STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • - (9/26/2012) - Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use - Part 2-032: Particular requirements for hand-held and hand-manipulated current sensors for electrical test and measurement
  • - (10/2/2012) - Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use - EMC requirements - Part 2-5: Particular requirements - Test configurations, operational conditions and performance criteria for field devices with field bus interfaces according to IEC 61784-1
  • - (10/2/2012) - Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use - EMC requirements - Part 2-2: Particular requirements - Test configurations, operational conditions and performance criteria for portable test, measuring and monitoring equipment used in low-voltage distribution systems
  • - (10/2/2012) - Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use - EMC requirements - Part 2-1: Particular requirements - Test configurations, operational conditions and performance criteria for sensitive test and measurement equipment for EMC unprotected applications
  • - (10/2/2012) - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-66: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of hearing instruments and hearing instrument systems
  • - (10/9/2012) - Amendment 2 - Identification cards -- Test methods -- Part 6: Proximity cards - Test methods for electromagnetic disturbance
  • - (10/12/2012) - Amendment 1 - Fuel cell technologies - Part 6-100: Micro fuel cell power systems - Safety
  • - (10/14/2012) - Fuel cell technologies - Part 6-100: Micro fuel cell power systems - Safety
  • - (10/19/2012) - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-24: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of infusion pumps and controllers

See for additional information。

U.S. – Telecom MRA signed with Israel

On October 15, 2012, The United States Trade Representative (USTR) announced that the governments of the United States and Israel signed a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) for the Conformity Assessment of Telecommunications Equipment. The intent of the MRA is to ease burdens on U.S. companies, especially smaller manufacturers, seeking to export telecommunications products to Israel, while maintaining the United States’ high technical standards and facilitating cross-border trade. Under this MRA, Israeli regulatory authorities will now accept tests that recognized U.S. laboratories perform to determine the conformity of telecommunications equipment with Israeli technical requirements, rather than requiring additional testing by Israeli laboratories, before American products can be sold in Israel. The Agreement also allows for the United States and Israel to agree in the future to accept equipment certifications from recognized conformity assessment bodies in the United States and Israel on a mutual basis.

斗地主达人The MRA streamlines the conformity assessment process by permitting recognized U.S. laboratories to test telecommunications products for conformity with Israeli technical requirements, and vice versa. The MRA also provides that, in the future, the United States and Israel can agree to the mutual acceptance of equipment certifications by recognized conformity assessment bodies in the United States and Israel. The MRA will also save manufacturers the time and expense of additional product testing and certification, which is expected to lower prices for consumers and boost exports.

The MRA covers equipment subject to telecommunications regulation, including wire and wireless equipment, and terrestrial and satellite equipment。 The MRA fully preserves the authority of the U。S。 Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine the technical requirements it considers appropriate, and in no way lowers current U。S。 safety requirements。 Once the United States and Israel have completed all internal legal requirements, the MRA will enter into force。

EU – Proposed Update to Radio Equipment Rules

斗地主达人On October 17, 2012, the European Commission (EC) proposed to update the Radio Equipment Directive。 The proposal aims to make sure all market players comply with the rules regarding the avoidance of interference, so that consumers do not have problems when opening car doors, monitoring their babies or listening to radio。 The EC also proposes to clarify and simplify the Directive, to facilitate its application and to eliminate unnecessary burden ultimately increasing all stakeholders’ confidence in the regulatory framework。

European Commission Vice President Antonio Tajani, Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship, said: “Mobile communications enrich the lives of citizens and are essential for the competitiveness of EU companies。 The R&TTE sector is one of the few high-tech sectors where the EU is a global leader。 Therefore, we need to strengthen confidence among producers to ensure that this sector can continue its successful growth。 We also propose to eliminate unclear or unnecessary requirements which deter innovation, to enable the radio and telecommunications sector to pursue its spectacular growth。”

The EC proposes:

  • to strengthen the level of compliance with the Directive, ensuring that citizens have access to radio products which operate without interference. For example, market surveillance and customs officers could better check the safety of products using more effective tools.
  • to clarify the directive, in particular clearly spelling out the obligations for every market player, be it manufacturer or importer, and also by limited adaptations of scope.
  • to simplify the directive, including through suppression of notification of certain products and other administrative obligations. The new directive would be aligned with the New Legislative Framework for products (IP/11/1385), which makes the overall regulatory framework for products more consistent and easier to apply.

The proposal would also introduce some specific requirements, such as:

  • ensuring that software can only be used with radio equipment after the compliance of that particular combination of software and the radio equipment has been demonstrated; interoperability with accessories such as chargers, and/or work via networks with other radio equipment.

Canada – APEC TEL MRA News Update – Phase I

Recently, Canada released a regarding amendments to Parts of CS-03 (covered under the Phase I APEC TEL MRA with Canada – Industry Canada):

The parts covered by Annex I of the MRA are noted below, and the highlighted sections are the updates. As laboratories get re-assessed, the appropriate amendment and issue dates need to be included. Canada has been asking for this in the recent past.

  • Part I, Issue 9, Amendment 4, December 2010
  • Part II, Issue 9, November 2004 – Change to Amendment 1, September 2012
  • Part V, Issue 9, Amendment 1, January 2009
  • Part VI, Issue 9, November 2004 – Change to Amendment 1, September 2012
  • Part VII, Issue 9, Amendment 3, October 2006 – Change to Amendment 4, September 2012
  • Part VIII, Issue 9, Amendment 4, May 2009

Copies of these documents are available here:

Malaysia – Update on LTE Devices

Recently, the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC / SKMM) announced that LTE consumer devices are permitted to be approved provided that these can demonstrate full compliance with the relevant ITU, 3GPP and / or ETSI specifications / standards. Where applicable, the generic requirements on safety, EMC, radio spectrum and SAR as specified in the relevant MCMC / SKMM technical specifications will also be enforced.

Malaysia’s initial LTE deployment will be in 2500 – 2690 MHz band, however, MCMC / SKMM expects that manufacturers will wish to approve multi-band products and will approve compliant products which also work in other bands that are identified for IMT systems globally。

Bahrain – Type Approval for Short Range Devices

Recently, a new authority in Bahrain, the Central Informatics & Communication Organization, took over the responsibility of certifying short range devices in Bahrain. Previously, the Ministry of Transportation (MoT) in Bahrain was responsible for this product category.

The new authority has introduced one major change in the procedure: Type Approval certificates are now limited to a THREE year validity period. This new validity period of three years applies to new Type Approvals as well as to applications for extensions of expired Type Approval certificates.

As a side note, Bahrain’s telecommunication regulatory authority (TRA) is still issuing Type Approvals for telecommunication products which are valid for 6 months.

US and EU – Acceptance of RTCA/DO-160 Test Reports

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) will accept RTCA/DO-160 commercial aircraft equipment test reports from accredited and non-accredited labs。

Regardless of a lab’s accreditation status, the FAA and the EASA require that test reports adhere to their standards of acceptability, and that the accompanying documentation meet all of their requirements. If this is not the case, the FAA and/or the EASA will require that the sub-standard submissions be revised/augmented before any further review, which will delay approval.

When it comes to choosing a lab for DO-160 testing, the following points should be considered:

  1. Select an accredited lab with RTCA/DO-160 testing experience and with a thorough understanding of your requirements, as well as the FAA and/or EASA requirements. For example, the FAA may require test witnessing by an approved DER (Designated Engineering Representative) or DAR (Designated Airworthiness Representative).
  2. Choose a lab with skilled and knowledgeable engineers with experience testing similar equipment against DO-160, and with meticulous technical writers who also understand the applicable requirements and standards.

Once the lab is selected:

  1. The lab should develop a solid test plan that will include all of the testing requirements, which should be reviewed with, and approved by, the client.
  2. The lab must then follow the test plan, fully documenting the test results.
  3. As the client, you have the most knowledge of how your product is operated, wired and configured, so it is prudent to have a representative on site at the lab during the testing process.
  4. As the client, it is your responsibility to provide the necessary documentation specific to your product.
  5. It is the responsibility of the lab to provide detailed test reports as required by the standard and the reviewing agency, including clear and concise test data and results, the test procedures utilized, photos and descriptions of test setups, and test equipment information, including calibration information.

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