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MultiPoint Newsletter - September 2012 Issue

Dear Colleague,

We have provided typical questions and answers that represent in most cases technical opinions with justification in FCC, IC and CE requirements. The particulars of the product for certification must be considered with respect to the applicability of these questions and answers. We hope you find our update valuable and welcome your feedback if you have any special needs or questions. Call us at 703.689.0368 for your testing requirements. You can view archived issues of MultiPoint at our website.


Upcoming Event:  MIL-STD-461/464 Class on 10/22/2012

Rhein Tech Laboratories, Inc. is hosting a complimentary class on October 22nd with expert Ken Javor.  Ken will provide a brief overview of the MIL-STD-461/464 test requirements with a historical perspective of the testing and how it has evolved to meet the modern challenges of defense electronics testing and integration. Additionally, the class will provide insight into the direction of future proposed MIL-STD changes as well as hands-on opportunities with the latest test equipment.

The class is limited to 24 students.  Please register by October 8th.   Read more...


Encrypted Communications Prohibitions

Question: Does the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prohibit encrypted communication between co-located transmitters and receivers and/or tethered transceivers?

Answer: The FCC rules and regulations do not prohibit encrypted communications for FCC Part 15 wireless co-located transmitters and receivers and/or tethered transceivers that fall under , , and .

Typically, the FCC technical standards specify the radio parameters and do not generally address the issue of higher layer protocols implemented by manufacturers, nor do they require security or prohibit specific protocols.

However, there are exceptions under some rules。  For instance, the FCC has rules for security requirements for cable interface devices to follow authentication requirements。 Similarly, recently the FCC required that unlicensed devices that operate in the TV Bands have secured communications, without specifying a protocol。

The FCC’s licensed rule parts do contain exceptions for certain licensed services with a requirement for “unencrypted” transmission of call signs。

For licensed devices that operate under , the FCC has adopted interoperability rules, which require implementation of specific protocols as defined by Project 25 (P25 or APCO-25) or the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)。

斗地主达人P25, or APCO-25, is a set of digital radio communications standards used by federal, state/province and local public safety agencies in North America。  This enables these public safety agencies to communicate with other agencies and mutual aid response teams in emergency situations, and plays a similar role as the European Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) protocol, but is not interoperable with it。

The 3GPP unites several telecommunications standards development organizations including ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TTA, and TTC, known as “Organizational Partners”, and provides their members with a stable environment to produce reports and specifications that define 3GPP technologies。

With both P25 and 3GPP, there are implicit security requirements that need to be supported。  Thus, while the FCC does not specify higher layer requirements, it is always best to make sure that the rules for the specific bands of operation, and the service requirements, are verified in order to make that determination。

斗地主达人Below are some examples of FCC rules and regulations that require encryption:

  • Cordless Phones

:  Cordless telephones shall incorporate circuitry which makes use of a digital security code to provide protection against unintentional access to the public switched telephone network by the base unit, and unintentional ringing by the handset。  These functions shall operate such that each access of the telephone network or ringing of the handset is preceded by the transmission of a code word。 Access to the telephone network shall occur only if the code word transmitted by the handset matches the code word set in the base unit。  Similarly, ringing of the handset shall occur only if the code word transmitted by the base unit matches the code word set in the handset。  The security code required by this section may also be employed to perform other communications functions, such as providing telephone billing information。

  • Push to Talk Radios Related to Part 90 700 MHz

:  (a) Encryption is permitted on all but the two nationwide interoperability calling channels.  Radios employing encryption must have a readily accessible switch or other readily accessible control that permits the radio user to disable encryption. (b) If Encryption is employed, the following encryption protocol must be used:  Project 25 DES Encryption Protocol, approved January 23, 2001, Telecommunications Industry Association, ANSI/TIA/EIA-102.AAAA-A-2001.

  • Emergency Alert System (EAS) Requirements

:  This part contains rules and regulations providing for an Emergency Alert System (EAS)。  The EAS provides the U。S。 President with the capability to provide immediate communications and information to the general public at the national, state and local levels during periods of a national emergency。  The EAS may also be used to provide heads of state and local governments, or their designated representatives, with a means of emergency communication with the public in their state or local area。  This is related to the Department of Justice, Homeland Security, and first responders’ safety。  In this rule part, verification of certain encoding/decoding must be done for a device。  The rules describe the required technical standards and operational procedures of the EAS for analog AM, FM, and TV broadcast stations, digital broadcast stations, analog cable systems, digital cable systems, wireline video systems, wireless cable systems, Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) services, Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS), and other participating entities。


TETRA Digital Radios

Question: 斗地主达人We are a manufacturer of TETRA digital radios and would like to know if the FCC allows TETRA radios to operate in the 700 MHz public safety spectrum and/or 800 MHz public safety NPSPAC channels.

Answer: The FCC recently released Report and Order (R&O) FCC 12-114 proposing to amend its Part 90 rules to permit the certification of Terrestrial Trunked Radio Technology (TETRA) equipment in the bands 450-470 MHz of the UHF band (421-512 MHz) and the Business/Industrial Land Transportation 800 MHz band channels (809-824 and 854-869 MHz) that are not in the National Public Safety Planning Advisory Committee (NPSPAC) portion of the band.  In its conclusion of this R&O, the FCC states that this will give Private Land Mobile Radio (PLMR) licensees additional equipment alternatives without increasing the potential for interference or other adverse effects on other licensees.

The FCC will not allow TETRA technology to operate in the 700 MHz public safety broadband spectrum because Congress and the FCC have specified Long Term Evolution (LTE) as the required broadband technology for this segment。  The FCC’s rules require 700 MHz Narrowband radios to use Project 25 Phase I technology on the 700 MHz Narrowband interoperability channels。  The FCC has stated that there are no indications in the record that TETRA equipment would conform to Project 25 Phase I, therefore the FCC does not consider the 700 MHz Narrowband spectrum to be a viable candidate for TETRA operation。


PLMR Narrowbanding

Question: What is the FCC’s deadline for the VHF-UHF Narrowbanding for Private Land Mobile Radios (PLMR)?

Answer: 斗地主达人January 2013 is the deadline for FCC PLMR VHF-UHF Narrowbanding (12.5 kHz; 11.25 kHz occupied bandwidth or narrower).  Non-compliance without a waiver will result in monetary fines and/or the cancellation of your license(s) by the FCC.

In April 2012 the FCC’s Wireless Telecommunications Service Bureau and Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau (“the Bureaus”) announced Public Notice DA-12-643, which is a limited suspension of the acceptance and processing of new or expanded use applications for Part 22 and Part 90 services operating in the 470-512 MHz band, or “T-Band”.  This was implemented in order to maintain a stable spectral landscape while the FCC determines how to implement recent spectrum legislation contained in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (“the Act”).

The proposed changes to the T-Band have raised a lot of questions which the FCC must address, however devices that operate in the 421-512 MHz band must have Narrowbanding capability by January 2013。  While amateur operation is permitted in part of the aforementioned band, if a device is certified for operation under Part 90, it must support Narrowband requirements。  Manufacturers may continue to provide support for wideband operations in the T-Band only。

For further information on this topic, please check .  This site provides comprehensive, up-to-date information and resources for the FCC Part 90 Private Land Mobile Radio (PLMR) Narrowbanding Mandate, including a link to Public Notice DA 11-1189, released on July 13, 2011, which summarizes the deadlines, provides a Q&A, and describes the process to request a waiver.


Alternative Duty Cycle

Question: We have a wireless device that only transmits at a fixed 50% duty cycle because of its intended operation.  There is no way to change this duty cycle.  How do we apply the FCC’s duty cycle correction factor?

Answer: KDB 558074 Section 8.2.4, Alternative 1 (average over on/off periods with duty cycle correction) states that when the EUT cannot be configured to transmit continuously (i.e. duty cycle <98%), and video triggering or signal gating cannot be used to measure only when the EUT is transmitting at its maximum power control level, then use one of the procedures in Section 8, Fundamental Emission Output Power Measurement Procedures, in free run mode to determine the average power inclusive of the on/off periods of the transmitter.  After which, you can then correct the duty cycle as follows:

  1. Measure the duty cycle per the guidance provided in Section 5.0, Duty Cycle and Transmission Duration Determination in KDB 558074.
  2. Add 10log (1/duty cycle) to the logarithmic representation of the maximum measured power level.
  3. Note that when a power meter is used to perform this measurement, the integration period must exceed the repetition period of the transmitted signal by at least a factor of five.

Standards Updates

EU: NEW CENELEC STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

斗地主达人This is a shortened list of the CENELEC standards published or made available during the past month:

  • - (8/17/2012) - Plasma display panels - Part 2-5: Measuring methods - Acoustic noise
  • - (8/24/2012) - Standard on top down and bottom up methods of calculation of energy consumption, energy efficiencies and energy savings
  • - (8/24/2012) - Explosive atmospheres - Part 0: Equipment - General requirements
  • - (8/24/2012) - Household and similar electrical appliances - Safety - Part 2-11: Particular requirements for tumble dryers
  • - (8/24/2012) - Passive RF and microwave devices, intermodulation level measurement - Part 1: General requirements and measuring methods
  • - (9/7/2012) - Energy efficiency benchmarking methodology
  • - (9/14/2012) - Electric toys - Safety
  • - (9/21/2012) - Conformity assessment - Requirements for bodies certifying products, processes and services (ISO/IEC 17065:2012)
  • - (9/21/2012) - Technical documentation for the assessment of electrical and electronic products with respect to the restriction of hazardous substances
  • - (9/21/2012) - Household and similar electrical appliances - Safety - Part 2-2: Particular requirements for vacuum cleaners and water-suction cleaning appliances
  • - (9/21/2012) - Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity - Part 8: Measurement of radiated immunity - IC stripline method
  • - (9/21/2012) - Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 1: General requirements
  • - (9/21/2012) - Radio frequency (RF) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters of assessed quality - Part 2: Guidelines for the use
  • - (9/21/2012) - Maritime navigation and radio communication equipment and systems - Shipborne equipment for long-range identification and tracking (LRIT) - Performance requirements

See CENELEC for additional information.

EU: NEW ETSI STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

This is a shortened list of the new ETSI standards published during the past month:

  • - (August 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum matters (ERM) System Reference Document (SRDoc); Broadband Direct-Air-to-Ground Communications System employing beamforming antennas, operating in the 2,4 GHz and 5,8 GHz bands
  • - (August 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices (SRD) using Ultra Wide Band (UWB); Measurement Techniques
  • - (September 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment; Part 17: Specific conditions for Broadband Data Transmission Systems
  • - (September 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Telecommunication network equipment; Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements
  • - (September 2012) - Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum matters (ERM) System Reference Document (SRDoc); Broadband Direct-Air-to-Ground Communications System employing beamforming antennas, operating in the 2,4 GHz and 5,8 GHz bands

See ETSI website斗地主达人 for additional information.

EU: NEW IEC STANDARDS RECENTLY RELEASED

This is a shortened list of the new IEC standards published during the past month:

  • - Edition 3.0 - (8/30/2012) - Amendment 1 - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-44: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for computed tomography
  • - Edition 3.1 - (9/18/2012) - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-44: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for computed tomography
  • - Edition 2.0 - (9/18/2012) - Interpretation sheet 1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-12: Limits - Limits for harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input current >16 A and ≤ 75 A per phase
  • - Edition 2.0 - (9/18/2012) - Fuel cell technologies - Part 5-1: Portable fuel cell power systems - Safety
  • - Edition 1.0 - (9/19/2012) - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-63: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of dental extra-oral X-ray equipment
  • - Edition 1.0 - (9/19/2012) - Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-65: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of dental intra-oral X-ray equipment

See for additional information.

US – Upcoming TCB Council Workshop (October 9-11, 2012)

The Telecommunications Certification Body Council (TCBC) will host its October 2012 Workshop from October 9-11, 2012 at the Holiday Inn (Inner Harbor) in Baltimore, Maryland。 The TCBC expects to have great participation from the FCC。 The topics presented will include:

  • FCC Updates and Roundtable discussions
  • International Updates from Industry Canada, Japan MIC
  • NIST MRA Updates
  • Near Field Communications (NFC)
  • Wireless Power Consortium (WPC)
  • Check Sheet session
  • EMC & R&TTE Directive Updates (all Thursday afternoon)

There will be a TCB Council Membership meeting the morning of Wednesday October 10, 2012. Additionally, the training materials for the Workshop will be available on the TCB Council website. Also, please note the Workshop is open to the public, although members of the TCB Council will receive a member discount for each paid registration.  

India – SAR Update for Mobile Phones

On August 17, 2012, India’s Ministry of Communication and Department of Telecommunications issued an update to their previously announced changes to their requirements for Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value for Mobile Phones。 The change was to allow for a 1 year grace period for existing handsets to be brought into compliance with the new SAR requirements。 The change notice also provided clarification on how compliance must be demonstrated。

Under the new guidelines, all new designs of mobile handsets must comply with SAR values of 1.6 W/kg averaged over 1 gram of tissue beginning September 1, 2012. However, mobile handsets already being sold in India, which are compliant with 2.0 W/Kg averaged over 10 gram tissue, may continue to be sold until August 31, 2013.

Beginning September 1, 2013, only mobile handsets with SAR value of no more than 1.6 W/kg averaged over 1 gram of tissue will be allowed into the domestic Indian market for sale.

In addition to the above, the following requirements apply to mobile phone based products:

  1. The SAR value is to be displayed on the handset IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) display.
  2. All the handsets sold in India are required to support hands free operation.
  3. Compliance with the 1.6 W/kg averaged over 1 gram of tissue limit must be demonstrated by a manufacturer’s Self Declaration and supported by a test report from an ILAC (International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation) accredited or Telecom Engineering Centre (TEC) accredited lab.
  4. The Manufacturer’s Declaration must be submitted to India’s Telecom Engineering Centre (TEC) and a copy sent to India’s Ministry of Communication and Department of Telecommunications.

US – FAA Seeks Comment on Existing Portable Electronic Device Policy

On 8/31/2012, the FAA published Docket No。 FAA-2012-0752 seeking comments on current policy, guidance, and procedures that aircraft operators (ranging from pilots of general aviation aircraft up to and including air carrier certificate holders at the major airlines) use when determining if passenger use of portable electronic devices (PEDs) may be allowed during any phase of flight on their aircraft。

Current FAA regulations generally prohibit the use of all PEDs during flight, with the exception of portable voice recorders, hearing aids, heart pacemakers, and electric shavers. These regulations also provide an exception for any other PED that the aircraft operator has determined will not cause interference with the navigation or communication systems on the aircraft.

To better effectuate the safety purposes of these regulations, this notice requests comments about key areas of policy and guidance that are used by aircraft operators when making these determinations. It also requests comments about other technical challenges for addressing the problems associated with determining if and when PEDs can be used. The desired outcome of this solicitation is to have sufficient information to allow operators to better assess whether more widespread use of PEDs during flight is appropriate, while maintaining the highest levels of safety to passengers and aircraft.

The FAA stresses that the existing regulations allow the operator to authorize the use of PEDs, and that no specific FAA approval is required. The aircraft operator is responsible for assuring that the interference from PEDs does not pose a flight risk. Once all the comments have been collected, the FAA intends to establish an Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) to review the comments and provide recommendations that might permit the more widespread use of PEDs during flight while maintaining the highest levels of safety for the passengers and aircraft.

The FCC will be a key partner in this activity working collaboratively with the FAA, airlines, and the manufacturers to explore broader use of PEDS in flight.  

Canada – Release of ICES-003, Issue 5

On August 25, 2012, Industry Canada released ICES-003, Issue 5 , which sets out standard requirements for Information Technology Equipment (ITE)。

A transition period ending August, 31, 2013, is provided, within which compliance with ICES-003, Issue 5, or ICES-003, Issue 4, will be accepted。 After this date, only compliance with ICES-003, Issue 5, will be accepted。 The requirements in ICES-003 Issue 5 apply to new models。 Existing models in compliance with a previous issue of ICES-003 shall remain compliant under the requirements of that previous issue or may adopt the requirements in Issue 5。

A list of changes are as follows:

  1. The title of the document has been changed from ICES-003 Digital Apparatus, to ICES-003 Information Technology Equipment (ITE) — Limits and methods of measurement.
  2. EMCAB-3 guidance document has been merged into ICES-003.
  3. Note that Issue 5 of ICES-003 has been entirely modified. Consequently the numerous changes are too extensive to list.

Brunei – Change in Modular Approval Rules

As of August 2012, modular approval is no longer sufficient to cover end-products or host products in Brunei。 Brunei’s Authority for Info-communications Technology Industry (AITI) introduced a new requirement that each host model requires its own Type Approval。 Modular approval is no longer accepted unless the module will be imported to Brunei as a stand-alone device。 If multiple host models use the same module, each host model is required to have its own Type Approval certificate。

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